十三张棋牌

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                    孤独症儿童心智解读能力不存在缺损

                    2019/6/18 17:39:32 来源:中国社会科学网-中国社会科学报 作者:wangsf 字体: 发表评论 打印此文

                    十三张棋牌  ZUOZHE:LANJIJUN ZHANGYANNAN ZIHAO

                      XINZHIJIEDUNENGLI,YEBEICHENGWEIXINLILILUN(theory of mind,ToM),SHIZHIGETIRENSHIZIWOYUTARENDEXUYAO、XIANGFA、QINGXU,LIJIETARENDEYITUDENG,BINGGENJUZHEIZHONGRENSHIYULIJIEYUCE、JIESHIXIANGYINGDEXINGWEI,SHIZHISHANGSHIYIZHONGTUICETARENXINLIZHUANGTAIJIQIYUWAIJIESHIWUYINGUOGUANXIDELILUN。XINZHIJIEDUZAIGETIGOUTONG、JIAOWANG、SHEJIAOZHONGJUYOUZHONGYAOYIYI,YONGYOULIANGHAOXINZHIJIEDUNENGLIDEGETIKEYIGENJUTARENDEZHUANGTAIJIESHIQIXINGWEI,YINERSHIGETISHIYINGSHEHUIDEYIZHONGZHONGYAONENGLI。

                    十三张棋牌  YIBANRENWEI,ERTONGZAI4SUIZUOYOUBIANKEHUODEXINZHIJIEDUNENGLI,NENGFOUTONGGUOCUOWUXINNIANRENWUSHIQIHUODEXINZHIJIEDUNENGLIDEZHONGYAOBIAOZHI。DANZHEIBINGBUYIWEIZHEERTONGZAI4SUIZHIQIANDEXINZHIJIEDUNENGLIJIUCHUYUYIPIANKONGBAIZHUANGTAI。YIYOUYANJIUBIAOMING,CONG2SUIZUOYOUKAISHI,ERTONGDUIYUTARENXINLIZHUANGTAIDERENZHINENGLIBIANZHUJIANFAZHAN,YIJINGNENGGOURENSHIDAOTARENSHIJUYOUYUANWANGDE,BINGQIEZHEIZHONGYUANWANGHUIYINGXIANGTAMENDEXINGWEI。CIWAI,TAMENDUIYUKANJIAN—ZHIDAOZHIJIANDEGUANXIYEKAISHIYOUSUOLEJIE。DAOLE3SUIZUOYOU,ERTONGJIUYIJINGNENGGOUQUFENXINLIZHUANGTAIHEWAIBUXIANSHI。ZHIDAO4SUIZUOYOU,ERTONGCAIHUIMINGBAI,DUIYUTONGYIWUTIHUOSHIJIAN,BUTONGDERENHUIYOUBUTONGDEGUANDIANHUOXINGWEI。TONGSHI,YEHUODELEQUFENWAIBIAOYUZHENSHIDENENGLI。4SUIBANSHIERTONGRENSHIXINLIZHUANGTAIDEZHUANZHEQI,5SUIDEERTONGBIANNENGGOUWANQUANLIJIEZIWOJITARENDEXINLIZHUANGTAI,DABUFENERTONGZAI5SUISHIDOUNENGGOUTONGGUOCUOWUXINNIANRENWU。

                      目前对普通儿童心智解读能力的研究已趋于完善,那么孤独症儿童十三张棋牌的心智解读能力发展情况如何?曾有研究表明,孤独症儿童并不具备像普通儿童那样自然而然地获得心智解读的能力,他们的心智解读能力是缺损的。具体表现在以下几个方面:首先,孤独症儿童能基本识别简单表情,但在理解错误信念任务上较为困难。研究指出,相比于普通学龄前儿童,孤独症儿童至少在心理年龄为11岁时才能有80%的通过率。其次,孤独症儿童难以领会、理解他人的情绪、行为、意愿以及背后所存在的因果联系,只能依靠一种外显的、机械的现实代替对他人心理状态的理解。最后,孤独症儿童在理解自身心理状态方面也存在一定困难。研究表明,在完成意外内容任务的过程中,孤独症儿童回忆自我的错误信念(归因于自我)与将错误信念归因于他人同样困难。但也有研究者曾提出孤独症儿童能通过初级、次级错误信念测验,只是在回答问题时较少运用心智状态的词汇,因此他们的心智解读能力并不存在缺失,只是发展迟滞。

                      GUONEIWAIBUTONGYANJIUZHEZAIGUDUZHENGERTONGXINZHIJIEDUNENGLISHANGSUODECHUDEJIELUNBUJINXIANGTONG。WEIJINYIBUTANJIUGUDUZHENGERTONGXINZHIJIEDUNENGLISHIFOUQUESUN,YANJIUZHECAIYONGXINZHIJIEDUGUSHISHUDUI31MING4—6SUIGUDUZHENGERTONGDEXINZHIJIEDUNENGLIJINXINGCEPING,GAICEPINGGONGJUBAOKUOGANZHIJUE、KANJIAN—ZHIDAO、ZHENSHI—XIANGXIANGQUFEN、YUANWANG、XINNIAN5GEWEIDU,NENGGOUJIAOWEIQUANMIANDICECHUERTONGXINZHIJIEDUNENGLIDEFAZHANSHUIPING。CEPINGJIEGUOBIAOMING,GUDUZHENGERTONGDEXINZHIJIEDUNENGLIZHENGTIMINGXIANDIYUTONGLINGPUTONGERTONG,DANQIDEFENZONGTICHENGSHANGSHENGQUSHI,JI6SUIERTONGDEDEFENDAYU4SUIERTONG。ZHEISHUOMINGGUDUZHENGERTONGDEXINZHIJIEDUNENGLIBINGBUCUNZAIQUESUN,ZHISHIFAZHANJIWEIHUANMAN。

                    十三张棋牌  ZONGTIERYAN,YUPUTONGERTONGXIANGBI,GUDUZHENGERTONGDEXINZHIJIEDUNENGLIFAZHANJIAOWEICHIHUAN,DUIYUGANZHIJUEDELIJIEYUPANDUANNENGLIQIANJIA,NANYIDUIZHENSHIFASHENGDESHIJIXIANGXIANGDESHIJINXINGBIANBIEYUQUFEN,WUFAGENJUTARENDEYUANWANG、XINNIANTUICECHUQIQINGXU、XINGWEI。

                      (本文系国家社科基金教育学一般课题“基于心智解读能力和教育行为矫正的孤独症儿童融入普通学校学习的支持策略”(BHA180160)阶段性成果)

                      (作者单位:陕西师范大学心理学院)


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