十三张棋牌

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                  融合是特殊儿童的权利

                  2019/5/29 15:18:01 来源:中国教育新闻网-中国教育报 作者:本报记者 赵彩侠 字体: 发表评论 打印此文

                    ■成长话题·融合教育

                    近年来,早期融合教育发展迅速,许多幼儿园或专业机构都在开展相关工作,但我们对此仍然知之甚少。融合教育究竟有何意义?融合教育的整体情况怎样?目前开展融合教育的核心困境是什么?如何解决这些困境?为解答这些问题,记者专访了北京师范大学特殊教育研究所教授邓猛。

                    ZAOQIRONGHEJIAOYUYOUJUDADEFAZHANKONGJIAN

                  十三张棋牌  JIZHE:NINZHANGQIYANJIUXUEQIANJIEDUANDERONGHEJIAOYU,NENGBUNENGJIESHAOYIXIAWOGUOXUEQIANJIEDUANRONGHEJIAOYUDEZHENGTIFAZHANQINGKUANG?

                    邓猛:我们国家的融合教育始于20世纪80年代中期,到目前为止,基本上已经形成了包括特殊学校、特殊班、资源班级、随班就读等在内的特殊教育体系。但这方面的探索主要是针对义务教育的。大规模的系统的早期融合教育还处于比较初始的发展阶段,这与我们国家学前教育整体发展相对滞后是一致的。但早期融合教育的发展潜力是很大的,社会需求也越来越大。

                  十三张棋牌  SUIZHESHIDAIDEBIANHUA,SHEHUIJINGJI、YILIAOBAOJIAN、SHENGYUFANGSHIJIJIAOYANGFANGSHIDEBIANHUA,HAIZIZAOQICHUXIANFAYUXINGWENTIDEKENENGXINGYUELAIYUEGAO。YOUERYUANLI,CHUJINGBULI、YINWEIGEZHONGYUANYINBEIBIANYUANHUADEHAIZIYEZAIBUDUANZENGJIA。LIRU,ZIBIZHENG、ZHUYILIQUEXIAN、DUODONGZHENG、QINGXUKUNRAO、FAYUCHIHUANDENG,DOUSHIJIAOWEICHANGJIANDE。DANGRANYOUHENDAYIBUFENHAIZI,KENENGYOUWENTI,DANYINWEINIANLINGHUOZHEJISHUDEYUANYIN,ZAINIANYOUJIEDUANHENNANBEIMINGQUEZHENDUANCHULAI。

                  十三张棋牌  CONGZONGTISHANGLAISHUO,CHUJINGBULIDEHAIZISHULIANGYOUJIASUZENGJIADEQUSHI。DUITAMENDEZAOQIGANYUSHIFENZHONGYAO。RUGUOBUNENGJISHIDUIZHEIXIEHAIZIYUYIGUANZHUHEZHICHI,JINIANZHIHOU,TAMENKENENGJIUHUIJINRUCANJIDEFANCHOU。RUGUOZAOQIGANYUDAOWEI,TAMENZEYOUKENENGXIANGPINGCHANGRENYIYANGSHENGHUOYUXUEXI,JISHIBUNENGXIANGPINGCHANGRENYIYANGSHENGHUO,YEKEYIYOUJIAODAGAIBIAN。ZAOQIGANYUHEJIAOYUFEICHANGGUANJIAN,DANMUQIANWOMENZUODEHAIYUANYUANBUGOU。

                    RONGHEDEHUANJINGYUZHUANYEJISHUFANGFAXUXIANGHUPEIHE

                    JIZHE:NINCENGSHUOGUO,RONGHEDUITESHUHAIZISHIQUANLIERFEIENCI。DUITESHUHAIZILAISHUO,RONGHEJIAOYUZUIDADEYIYISHISHENME?

                    DENGMENG:HAIZIZHONGJIUSHIYAOZAISHEHUIZHONGSHENGHUOYUFAZHANDE。SUOYI,ZHULIUDESHEHUI,BAOKUOZHULIUDEJIAOYUXITONGSHIHAIZIZUIYINGGAIQUXIANGSHOUDEJIHUIYUZIYUAN。YEZHIYOUZAIZHULIUDESHEHUI、YOUERYUANLIXUEXIHESHENGHUO,TAMENDESHEHUIJINENGCAINENGFAZHANHAO,CAINENGGENGHAODIXUEHUIYUQITARENDAJIAODAO,JIANGLAICAIKENENGZAIZHULIUJIAOYUTIXI、SHEHUILIXUEXIYUSHENGHUO,SHIXIANSHEHUIDECANYUHERONGRU,TIGAOTAMENDESHENGHUOZHILIANG。YINCIKEYISHUO,ZHULIUDESHENGHUOYUJIAOYUHUANJING,WEITESHUHAIZIDECHENGZHANGTIGONGLEJICHUTIAOJIAN。

                    JIZHE:XUEQIANJIEDUAN,SUOYOUDETESHUHAIZIDOUSHIHERONGHEMA?

                    DENGMENG:CONGLIXIANGDEJIAODULAISHUO,SUOYOUDETESHUHAIZIDOUSHISHIHERONGHEDE。DANCONGXIANSHIQINGKUANGLAIKAN,WOMENHAIZUOBUDAO。MUQIANZHINENGZHENGQUWEIGENGDUODEHAIZITIGONGRONGHEDEHUANJINGYUZHICHI。WORENWEI,JUEDADUOSHUTESHUHAIZISHIJUBEIRONGHEDEJICHUYUQIANNENGDE。

                    JIZHE:PUTONGHAIZIYUTESHUHAIZISUOXUYAODEGUANZHUSHIBUYIYANGDE。RONGHEDEHUANJINGGURANDUITESHUHAIZIHAO,DANHUIBUHUICUNZAIYINWEIJIAOSHIBUNENGZHUANMENGUANZHAO,SHITAMENCHUXIANFAZHANSHOUZUDEXIANXIANG?

                    DENGMENG:MEIGEHAIZIBENSHENJIUSHIBUTONGDE。ZHEIXIETESHUHAIZIYUPUTONGHAIZIWUFEISHICHABIEDAYIXIE,DANBENZHISHANGHAISHIXIANGTONGDE。ZAIZAOQIJIEDUAN,HAIZIZHIJIANDECHAYIBIAOXIANXIANGDUIHUIXIAOYIXIE、KEKONGYIXIE。JULILAISHUO,HAIZIZHIJIANDEQISHI,JIUBUXIANGGAONIANJISHINEIYANGMINGXIAN,YINWEIXUEQIANJIEDUANDEHAIZIBINGBUDONGDEQISHI。SUOYIRUGUOCONGZAOQIKAISHIZHONGSHI,RONGHEGENGRONGYISHIXIAN,HAIZIZHIJIANYENENGHENHAODIXIANGCHU。

                    LINGWAI,TESHUHAIZIYUPUTONGHAIZICHABIEDAYIXIE,XUYAOJIAOSHIHUAFEIGENGDUODEJINGLIQUZHAOGUTAMENYESHISHISHI。DANMEIGESHENGMINGDEJIAZHIHEQUANLISHITONGDENGDE,CHAYIBUSHIJUJUEDELIYOU。ZHEIJIUSHIWEISHENMEWOMENYAOTUIDONGRONGHEYOUERYUANDEYUANYIN。WOMENXUYAOJIJIAOSHITIGONGYIXIEZHICHI,RANGTAMENYOUHOUDUN,RANGTAMENNENGGOUYINGDUIBUTONGHAIZIDEXUQIU。

                    如果孩子的问题比较严重,可能超过了幼儿园能够把控的范畴,可能需要到康复中心甚至医院做专业的康复或治疗;或者这些专业人员到幼儿园里提供支持也是可以的。但这样的孩子数量是极少的。幼儿园里很多被认为有各种问题甚至残疾的孩子,表现出来的往往是这样或那样较为轻微的问题,如注意力不集中、情绪困扰、动作不协调、语言发展缓慢等。这些基本都没有超出教师现有专业能力的范围。如果给他们一些培训和各种必要的支持,效果就会更好。

                    JIZHE:WOMENSHIFOUKEYISHUO,ZAIXUEQIANJIEDUAN,RONGHEDEHUANJINGSHENZHIBIZHUANYEDEJISHUYUFANGFAGENGZHONGYAO?

                    DENGMENG:BUNENGNEIYANGSHUO。ZHUANYEDEJISHUFANGFAYURONGHEDEHUANJING,HUANGEJIAODUSHUO,JIUSHIKANGFUYOUERYUANYURONGHEYOUERYUAN。TAMENYINGGAISHIXIANGHUBUCHONG、XIANGHUJIEHEDE。YINGYIRONGHEYOUERYUANWEIZHU,KANGFUYOUERYUANWEIFU。KANGFUYOUERYUANGENGZHUANYE,TADEXUNLIANHUOJIAOYUFANGSHIGENGYOUZHENDUIXING。RONGHEYOUERYUANZHUANYEZIYUANGENGSHAOYIXIE,DANTADEHUANJING、WENHUAGENGSHIHETESHUHAIZI。ERZHEJIEHEQILAIBIJIAOHAO。DANZUIGENBENDEHAISHIYAOKANHAIZIDEXUQIUYUNENGLI。

                    BIRUDUIZIBIZHENGHAIZIHUOZHELONGERDEXUNLIAN,ZAIKANGFUJIGOUZHONG,TAMENNENGGOUXUEHUIFAYIN、SHUOHUA,DANTAMENDEYUYANFAZHANXUYAODAOGENGZHENSHIFUZADEHUANJINGZHONGQUSHIYONG,ZHEIYANGCAIYOUXIAOGUO。NEIME,TAMENJIUXUYAOPUTONGDETONGBANYUJITIHUANJING。YINWEIZAITESHUHAIZIYUPUTONGHAIZIWANSHUAYUJIAOWANGDEGUOCHENGZHONG,TAMENHUIGENGHAODIBIAODA,YOUBIAODADEXINGQU、DONGJI、QINGJINGJIJUTINEIRONG,ZHEIGENGJIAZHONGYAO。

                    YINCI,ZAIZAOQIKANGFUGUOCHENGZHONG,HUOZHEKANGFUYIDUANSHIJIANHOU,YEYINGRANGTESHUHAIZIHUIDAOZHULIUDEHUANJINGZHONGQUYUPUTONGHAIZIFASHENGGUANXI,QUWANSHUA、JIAOWANG。

                    GUANNIANDEZHUANBIANSHIKAIZHANRONGHEJIAOYUDEHEXIN

                  十三张棋牌  JIZHE:JUNINDEYANJIU,MUQIANTESHUHAIZIJINRUYOUERYUAN,BEIJIENADECHENGDURUHE?

                    DENGMENG:ZHEIGENGDUOQUJUEYUJIAOSHIJIYOUERYUANDEGUANNIAN。ZHIYAOYOUERYUANZHENZHENGYIERTONGWEIZHONGXIN,JIUBUHUICHUXIANJUJUEDEQINGKUANG。YINWEIYOUERYUANDEHAIZISHIBUDONGYEBUHUIJUJUEDE。ZAITAMENYANLI,DOUSHIWANBANERYI。BUJIENAYIFANGMIANLAIZIJIAOSHI,YIFANGMIANLAIZIPUTONGHAIZIJIAZHANG,DANSHIJIAZHANGDETAIDUHAISHISHOUJIAOSHIDEYINGXIANG,SHIKEYIYINDAODE。

                    WOJIECHUGUOXUDUOGEZHONGCENGCIDEYOUERYUAN,MEIGECENGCIDOUYOUZUODEHAODE,YEYOUZUODEBUHAODE。ZHEIJIUSHUOMING,ZIYUANDECHABIEBINGMEIYOUDAOZHIZAIJIENATESHUHAIZIFANGMIANDEXIANZHECHAYI。ZHUYAOSHIYOUERYUANSHIFOUYOUYIGEHAODEFENWEI。QISHI,WOMENKANDAO,DANGTESHUHAIZIZAIYOUERYUANLIBUNENGDEDAOHAODEDAIYUSHI,PUTONGHAIZIDEJINGYUYEBUJINRURENYI。XIANGFAN,RUGUOTESHUHAIZIDEDAOLEHAODEGUANZHAO,PUTONGHAIZIJIUBUYANERYULE,KENDINGHUIDEDAOHENHAODEJIAOYU。ZHEISHIYOUYOUERYUANDEGUANNIANJUEDINGDE。

                  十三张棋牌  DANGRAN,CONGZONGTISHANGLAISHUO,TESHUHAIZIRUYOUERYUANMUQIANHAISHIXIANGDUIKUNNANDE,ZHEIXUYAOZHENGCEDEQIANGLIZHICHI。

                  十三张棋牌  JIZHE:DANGQIANKAIZHANRONGHEJIAOYUZUIDADENANDIANSHISHENME?

                    DENGMENG:ZUIDADENANDIANSHIJIAOSHIGUANNIANDEQUEFA。ZHANGQIYILAI,WOMENHAICUNZAIYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGDEJINGYINGJIAOYUGUANNIAN,DUIERTONGQUANLIDERENSHIYUZUNZHONGDOUBUGOU,ZHEIJIUZAOCHENGHENZHANGYIDUANSHIJIAN,TESHUHAIZIJINYOUERYUANSHIFENKUNNAN。GUANNIANBAOHANXUDUODONGXI,BIRUERTONGGUAN、CANJIGUAN、JIAOXUEGUANDENG。JIAOSHIDEGUANNIANJUEDINGZHETAMENRUHEKANDAIBUTONGDEHAIZI,RUHEKANDAIYOUERYUANJIAOYU。DANGRAN,SUIZHEJINXIENIANWOGUOXUEQIANJIAOYUDEKUAISUFAZHAN,JIAOYUTIZHIYEYUELAIYUEDUOYUANHUA、JUNHENGHUA。XIANGYINGDI,DAJIADEGUANNIANYEZAIFASHENGBIANHUA,GENGDUODIKAISHIRENSHIBINGZUNZHONGHAIZIDECHAYI,NENGGOUGENGJIAGONGPINGDIDUIDAITAMEN。XIANZAIXUDUOYOUERYUANYIJINGKAISHIZHUDONGQUYANJIUTESHUHAIZI,BINGZHENZHENGKAISHICHENGDANQIJIAOYUPEIYANGTAMENDEZERENLE。WOMENXUYAOZUODEJIUSHICHIXUTUIDONGZHEIJIANSHI。

                    ZUOHAORONGHEJIAOYUSHIZIPEIYANGDEZHIDUSHEJI

                  十三张棋牌  JIZHE:CHULEGUANNIANWAI,KAIZHANRONGHEJIAOYUHAIYOUNAXIEKUNNAN?

                    DENGMENG:ZAIGUANNIANZHIWAI,NANDIANZHUYAOSHIJIAOSHIZHUANYEZHISHIYUFANGFADEQUEFA。MUQIAN,CHUTESHUJIAOYUZHUANYEWAIDEQITASHIFANJIAOYUZHUANYE,BINGMEIYOUKAISHETESHUJIAOYUDEXIANGGUANKECHENG。SUOYIJIAOSHIZAIMIANDUITESHUHAIZISHI,JIUHUICHUXIANKONGJUYUWUZHI。KONGJUSHIYINWEIMEIJIANGUO,WUZHISHIBULEJIE。SUOYIWOMENZAISHIFANJIAOYUDEKECHENGLI,YINGGAIJIARUTESHUJIAOYUDEXIANGGUANKECHENG。

                  十三张棋牌  LINGWAISHIZAIZHIPEIXUN,WOMENXUYAOTONGGUOPEIXUN,JIJIAOSHIGENGDUODEZHUANYECHENGZHANGJIHUI,ZHISHAORANGTAMENLEJIETESHUHAIZIDEJIBENTEDIAN。BIRUTAMENXINGWEIDEBIAOXIANXINGSHI、YUANYINDENG。ZAICIJICHUSHANG,BANGZHUTAMENZHANGWOYIXIEJIBENDEYINGDUIFANGFA。ZHISHIXIANZAI,JIAOSHIDEDAODEPEIXUNJIHUIHAIBIJIAOSHAO,WOMENXUYAOZUOHAODINGCENGGUIHUAYUZHIDUSHEJI,NULIWEITAMENTIGONGXITONGHUADEZHUANYEPEIXUN。

                    CHUCIZHIWAI,JIUSHIYIXIEZHUANYEZHICHI,BIRUJIANLIZIYUANJIAOSHI,PINQINGTESHUXUEXIAOHUOKANGFUJIGOUDEZHUANYERENYUANTIGONGYIXIEZHUANYEZHIDAO。RUGUOZHEIJIGEFANGMIANDOUNENGGOUZUODAOWEI,NEIMERONGHEJIAOYUKAIZHANQILAIJIUBUZAISHIYIGENANTILE。

                    《ZHONGGUOJIAOYUBAO》2019NIAN05YUE26RIDI4BAN


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