十三张棋牌

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                                  自闭症孩子家庭训练的原则、内容及方法

                                  2013/9/18 15:32:33 来源:互联网 作者:佚名 字体: 发表评论 打印此文

                                    家庭训练是在专业人员的指导下,由家长担任主要教育训练人的一种教育模式。目前,我国的孤独症儿童的早期干预方式基本上以家庭训练为主。即使参加了一段时间的机构训练或者已能随幼儿园或小学就读的孩子,家庭也还要对其继续开展长期的训练,家长们仍要担负起教育孤独症儿童的主要责任。

                                  十三张棋牌   YI、JIATINGXUNLIANDEQIANTI

                                    1.XUEXIXIANXING:JIATINGCHENGYUANJIEZHUJIGOUZHUANYERENYUANDEBANGZHUHUOCAIQUZIXUEDEFANGSHI,DALIANGLEJIEYOUGUANGUDUZHENGDEZHISHI。BULEJIEGUDUZHENGJIUHENNANBANGSHANGGUDUZHENGDEMANG,JINGCHANGSHIBANGDAOMANG,JIHAOXINBANHUAISHI。

                                    2.了解孩子:细心观察、全面了解孩子,对照资料全面分析孩子,列出孩子的主要优势、潜在能力及主要困难、主要行为问题十三张棋牌,作为制定教学计划的依据。

                                  十三张棋牌   3.XUEXILILUNYUJIQIAO:XIANZOUJIEJING,XIANKANYOUGUANGUDUZHENGJIAOYUXUNLIANDEYOUGUANZHANGJIE,XUEXIGUANYUGUDUZHENGJIAOYUXUNLIANDEYIBANLILUNJIJUTIDEJIAOXUEJIQIAO,HUOZHEZHIJIEDAOJIGOUQUGUANMOXUEXI,YIHOUZAIDUXIEPUERTONGJIAOYUXUNLIANDEZILIAO,YIBIANJIEJIANYOUYIDEJINGYAN。

                                    4.ZHUANYERENYUANDEZHIDAO:ZUIHAOYUZHUANYERENYUANJIANLILIANXI,TAMENKEYIDUIJIATINGXUNLIANTICHUZHENDUIXINGDEJIANYI,BANGZHUZHIDINGJIAOYUFANGANBINGJUTIZHIDAOFUMUDUIHAIZIJINXINGZHANGQIXITONGDEXUNLIAN,YINGGENJUSHIJIXUNZHAOZHUANYEZIYUAN,DANZAIMUQIANPUBIANQUEFADEQINGKUANGXIA,XUEXIBISHENMEDOUZHONGYAO。

                                  十三张棋牌   ER、JIATINGXUNLIANDESHISHI

                                    (YI)PINGGUYUJIHUADEZHIDING

                                    1.ZAIPINGGUDEJICHUSHANGZHIDINGJIHUATONGGUOGUANCHA,QUANMIANLEJIEERTONGDEXIANYOUNENGLIHEQIANQUEDENENGLI,SHIYONGHESHIDEZAOQIJIAOYUFANGAN,ZHAOCHUXUNLIANDEQIDIAN,QUEDINGYUZHIXIANGFUDEJIAOYUCUOSHI,ZAICIJICHUSHANGZHIDINGCHENGXUNLIANJIHUA。

                                    制定训练计划首先要明确目标,然后是确定个别化的课程。除了设计课程的方法外,我们还可以借鉴已有的课程方案,如波特奇早期教育方案、《孤独症及发育障碍儿童个别化评估第三册——孤独症儿童的教育活动和教育》(SchoPler等编著,张庆长编译,杨晓玲审校,北京十三张棋牌孤独症儿童康复协会编)等。下面为了家长能对该课程有个具体了解,特摘录此书中的部分内容供家长评估和设计教育方案时参考(表10-1,适合8岁以前的孩子使用)。

                                  十三张棋牌   (ER)ZUZHIYUSHISHIJIATINGXUNLIAN

                                  十三张棋牌   1.JIATINGXUNLIANYINGZHANGWODEYUANZE

                                    (1)QIARUQIFENDIGUJIHAIZIDENENGLI,DINGCHUQIESHIKEXINGDEJIHUA,NINGKENKAISHIDINGDEQIDIANSHAODIYIDIAN。

                                    (2)YONGYUANDUIHAIZIBAOYOUXIWANG,BUGUANTADENENGLIYOUDUOCHA,KAISHIXUNLIANDEQIDIANYOUDUOMEDI。

                                  十三张棋牌   (3)XUEXIHUODONGNEIRONGYAOFENGFU,ANPAIYAOQIADANG,YIBANZAIJINGLIJIZHONGDESHIHOUANPAIRENZHIJIYUYANNEIRONG;JINGXIHUODONGZEANPAIZAIHOUBANDUANHUOZHECHAZAIRENZHIJIYUYANXIANGMUDEZHONGJIAN,DAYUNDONGZEANPAIZAISHANGWUJIXIAWUDEKAISHIHUOZHEWANSHANG。MEITIANWANSHANGYAOANPAIQINZIHUODONG。MEITIANANPAIWAICHUHUODONG,DIAOJIEJINZHANGDEXUEXIQIFEN,WEIHAIZIZENGJIARENSHIZHOUWEISHIJIEDEJIHUI。

                                    (4)XUEXIRENHEYIGEXIANGMUDOUYAODUOZHONGFU,YOUQISHIJINGXIDEDONGZUOHECUDADONGZUO,YAOYOUYIDINGLIANGDEYAOQIU。

                                  十三张棋牌   (5)ZHONGSHISHENGHUOZILIXUNLIANDEXIANGMU,ZHEIDUITAJIANGLAIZILIHENZHONGYAO。

                                    (6)JIAOXUENEIRONGJIYAOZHUYISHIYONGXING,YEYAOZHUYIZHISHIDEXITONGXING。

                                  十三张棋牌   (7)JIAOYUXUNLIANBIXUJIANCHIZHANGJIU,BUNENGRENYIZHONGDUANXUNLIAN。

                                    2.创设适宜的家庭训练环境。从某种意义上来说,教学环境就是家里的生活空间。在不同的教学目标下,家中的每一个角落都可以作为教学的环境。如果教学目标是穿衣服,那么房间、浴室就是自然的教学地点;如果教学目标是帮助妈妈完成一件事,那么客厅、阳台、房间或厨房等也应是自然的学习环境。语言训练的教学环节更应该是家里生活的每一个空间,做什么就教孩子说什么,进行有些项目的教学,则必须有一个固定的场所。

                                    (1)WEIHAIZIANPAIYIGEZHUANMENXUEXIDEXIAOFANGJIAN,RUGUOMEIYOUTIAOJIANKEGECHUYIKUAIKAOQIANGJIAODEDIFANGHUOZHEZAIKETINGDECHAJISHANGHUOZHECHUFANGDECANZHUOSHANGJIAOYEKEYI。

                                  十三张棋牌   (2)ZHUNBEIHAOXUEXIDEYONGJU:XIAOYIZI、XIAOZHUOZI、JIGESULIAOXIAOKUANG、XIAOJIAZIWUSHUGE(YONGLAIKAPIANHUOZUOJINGXILIANXIYONG),GELEIKAPIAN(RENWU、DONGWU、SHUCAI、SHUIGUO、JIAOTONGGONGJU……),CAISEBI、QIANBI、BAIZHI、GEZHONGXIAOWANJU……

                                    (3)CHUKEBIAOWAIQIANGSHANGJINLIANGBUTIERENHEDONGXI,ZAIHAIZIZUOWEIHOUFANGZHIYIZHONGBIAO

                                    (4)HAIZIXUEXISHIYAOBAOCHIZHOUWEIHUANJINGDEANJING,YINGBIMIANDASHENGXUANHUA,RUBADIANSHIJISHENGYINFANGDEHENDA。

                                    (5)XUEXIKONGJIANLIBUZHIYIGEHAIZIWANSHUADEJIAOLUO,BAIFANGHAIZIXIHUANDEXIAOXINGWANJUYIBEIKEJIANXIUXISHIYONG,HAIZIYAOBEIDUIZHEIXIEWANJUZUO,YIMIANFENSANTADEZHUYILI。

                                    (6)XUNLIANSHIYIWAIDEQITAFANGWUDEQIANGBI,TIESHANGYUHAIZIDANGQIANXUEXIYOUGUANDETUPIANHUOGUASHANGYILIANGFUGUATU,YIBEIHAIZISUISHIQUZHIREN。

                                    (7)YOUJIHUADIZAIJIAZHONGDECHANGYONGYONGPIN、YONGJUSHANGTIESHANGWENZI(BUYAOTAIDUO,YIGEJIEDUAN2、3GE)KESUISHIJIAOHAIZIRENZI。

                                    (8)DATINGNEIKEFANGZHIYILIANGTONGCHE、YIGEDAQIUHEQITADAYIDIANDEWANJU,YIBIANHAIZIKEYUSHIZIYOUWANSHUA。

                                    (9)培养孩子良好的习惯,上完课要帮助大人收拾教具,并放回原处摆放整齐。

                                  十三张棋牌   (10)SHANGXIAKEYAOYOUXINHAO。RANGHAIZIZHIDAOSHENMESHIHOUHUOSHENMEYANGDEXUNHAOSHIZUOXIALAISHANGKEHUOZHEKEYICHUQUWAN、CHIDIANXIN。SHENGHUO、JIAOYUXUNLIANYINGYOUGUILV,YIPEIYANGHAIZIDELIANGHAOSHENGHUOXIGUANHEXUEXIXIGUAN。

                                    (SAN)JUTIDEZUZHIFANGFA

                                  十三张棋牌   SHANGKEYUXIAKEZUNSHOUDEZONGYUANZESHI:YUKUAIDIKAISHIYUYUKUAIDIJIESHU;ZHUNSHI、YOUGUILV。

                                    1.SHANGKE

                                  十三张棋牌   (1)TONGCHANG“ZUOXIALAI”SHIXUNLIANDEDIYIBU:①KEZAIRICHANGSHENGHUOZHONGLIAN“ZUOXIACHIDONGXI”、“ZUOXIALAIDENGYIHUI”。FACHUZHILING“ZUOXIA”HOU,YAODENGHAIZIZHENDEZUOHAOLECAIJITADONGXICHI。②XUANNENGZUODEZHANGJIUDEXUNLIANXIANGMU(CHAXUEHUAPIAN、FENJIANDOUZI)JINXINGLIANXI。③NENGLIQIANGDEHAIZIKETONGGUOLIANXIHUAHUA,LIANXISHUFALAIPEIYANGTANENG“ZUOXIALAI”DEXIGUAN。

                                  十三张棋牌   (2)YONGYOUQUDEXINHAOXUANBUSHANGKE:①FANGYIDUANHAIZIXIHUANDEYINLE。②LAZHESHOUCHANGZHEGEZOUXIANGXUNLIANSHI。③QIAOJIHAIZIXIHUANDELEQI。DANGHAIZILAIDAOXUNLIANSHI,ZUOZAIYIZISHANGSHI,JIAOZHEYAOGAOSUTA: “SHANGWANKEHAIKEYITINGYINLE,QIAOJILEQI……”

                                    (3)ZAIJIAOZHEYUHAIZIDEHUDONGHUODONGHEYUKUAIDEQINGXUZHONGKAISHISHANGKE:①YIQIWANERYIJIANHAOWANDEWANJU。②XIANGHUJIZHANG。③XIANGHUZHIYIXIAWUGUAN。④JIHAIZIWANYIXIAJIAOJU,SHOUHUILAIZAISHANGKE。

                                  十三张棋牌   (4)CONGZUIRONGYIDEXIANGMUKAISHI,HUOCONGFUXIJIUDENEIRONGKAISHI,SHIHAIZIYIXIAZIJIUNENGCHENGGONG,BINGDEDAOGULI。

                                    (5)XUNLIANGANGKAISHIDESHIHOU,BUYAOYIXIAZIYAOQIUHAIZIYIDINGYAOSHANGMANYIJIEKE(20FENZHONGHUO30FENZHONG)SHANGLEJIFENZHONGJIUKEYILIKAIKEZHUOWANYIXIA(RUJITAYIGEXIAOWANJU)。

                                  十三张棋牌   (6)DUIHAIZINANYIWANCHENGDENEIRONG,BUYAOLAOQUZHONGFU,KEHUANCHENGYIXIANGRONGYIWANCHENGDERENWUJITA。

                                    (7)QIEJICUICUHAIZI“KUAIDIAN”,YAOJITASIKAODESHIJIAN,BIYAOSHIKEFUZHUTAWANCHENG。

                                    (8)SHANGKEDEYUYANYAOJIANJIE,CHULEFAZHILINGJIUSHIJIANGLIDEHUAYU,QUEBAOJIAOZHEDEHUADOUSHIYOUYONGDE。

                                    2.XIAKE

                                    (1)XIANGZHENGXINGDEXIAKE。ZAIXUNLIANZHICHU,SHANGJIFENZHONGKEJIUXUANBU“XIAKE”,SHIHAIZIBUGANJUESHANGKESHIZHONGFUDAN。

                                    (2)ZAIHAIZIBIAOXIANZUIHAODESHIHOUXIAKE,RANGHAIZINENGWUCHU:“HAOHAOXUEXIJIUKEYIXIAKE”,QIEJIZAITABIAOXIANHAOSHIJIAZHANGKESHI。BIEWANGLEDUIHAIZISHUO:“NIZUODEHAO!”

                                    (3)RANGHAIZIZAIZUIKAIXINDESHIHOUXIAKE。KEYIYINWEIKETIWANCHENGDEHAO,DEDAOJIANGLIHENKAIXIN;YEKEYISHIJIAOZHEYUHAIZIZAIKEKUAIJIESHUSHIDEHUDONGERKAIXIN。

                                    (4)ZUIJIHUINAOZHEXIAKE,DANGHAIZICHUXIANLEKANGJUQINGXUSHIYAOJISHIDIAOZHENG,HUOJIANGDIKETIDENANDUHUOJIANSHAOKETIDESHULIANG,RANHOUGAOSUHAIZI:“ZUOWANXXJIUXIAKE。”WANCHENGRENWUHOULIJIJIANGLITA,RANGHAIZIMINGBAI:“KUNAOSHIBUNENGXIAKEDE。”

                                    (SI)XUNLIANNEIRONGJIFANGFA

                                  十三张棋牌   1.MOFANGNENGLIXUNLIAN。MOFANGSHIGUDUZHENGERTONGXUEXIDEZHONGYAOKECHENG。ZAIRENHEYIGEHAIZIDESHENGZHANGFAYUGUOCHENGZHONG,MOFANGJINENGDEFAZHANDOUSHIYIGEBIYAODEJIBENZUCHENGBUFEN。GUDUZHENGERTONGXUEXIMOFANGJUYOUTESHUDEKUNNAN,YINCIBIXUCONGYIKAISHIJIUYAOJIAOJITAMENMOFANGJINENG,CONGERBATAMENCHIHUANDEHUOGUAIYIDEXINGWEIFANGSHINARUZHENGCHANGDEXUEXIMOSHIZHONG,YIBUYIBUDIYINDAOTAMENFAZHANCHUWOMENSUOXUYAODEXINGWEIFANGSHI。

                                    MOFANGNENGLIXUNLIANDENEIRONGBAOKUO:CAOZUOWUPINMOFANG、DONGZUOMOFANG、SHENGYINMOFANG。XUNLIANZUIHAOCONGCUDADONGZUODEMOFANGKAISHI。DUIYUMEIYOUYUYANDEHAIZI,CONGDONGZUOMOFANGZHUJIANJINRUDAOSHENGYINMOFANGSHIBIJIAORONGYICHENGGONGDE。

                                    MOFANGNENGLIXUNLIANDEFANGFAJICHENGXU:FAZHILING→SHIFAN→FUZHU→GULI。

                                    FANGFAJULI:

                                  十三张棋牌   MUBIAO:TONGGUOMOFANGNENGGOUMOSANGESHENTIBUWEI

                                    FANGFA:

                                  十三张棋牌   (1)YUHAIZIDUIMIANZUOXIA,ZUORENHENENGXIYINHAIZIZHUYILIDEHUODONG。

                                    (2)YIDANHAIZIKANZHENI,MASHANGSHUO: “MOUMOU,MOBIZI。”TONGSHIYONGSHIZHIMOZIJIDEBIZI。

                                    (3)RUGUOHAIZIMEIYOUFANYING,NEIMENIZAIMOZIJIBIZIDETONGSHI,YONGLINGWAIYIZHISHOUNAZHEHAIZIDESHIZHIMOTADEBIZI,BINGLIKEJIYUGULITA(LIRU:WEIXIAO、BIAOYANG、JIYIGEKEYICHIHUOWANDEDONGXI)。

                                    (4)ZHONGFUZHEIYANGDEGUOCHENG,ZHIDAOTAZAIMEIYOUFUZHUXIANENGGOUSHIZHONGRUYIDIZUOCHUFANYING。

                                    ZHUYI:①MEIYICI,ZAINIMOZIJIDEBIZI,SHUO:“MOUMOU,MOBIZI’DESHIHOU,QUEBAOHAIZIKANZHENI。②WULUNSHENMESHIHOU,TAZUOCHUZHENGQUEFANYINGDOUYAOJIYUJIANGLI。③ZAIHAIZIDUINIDEZHILINGFANYING90%YISHANGDOUZHENGQUEHOU,ANZHAOXIAMIANDESHUNXU:TOUFA、ZUI、YANJING、ERDUO,YICIMOYIGESHENTIBUWEI。

                                    2.CUDADONGZUOXUNLIAN。XUELINGQIANSHIERTONGCUDADONGZUOFAZHANDEZUIKUAIDEJIEDUAN,CUDADONGZUOXUNLIANDENANDUBINGBUHENDA,ZHIYAOZAISHENGLICHENGSHUDEJICHUSHANG,ZHEYIXUNLIANJIUKEYISHOUDAOXIAOGUO。WEIJINGXUNLIANDEGUDUZHENGERTONGYIBANCONGCUDAYUNDONG6<XUNLIANKAISHI,RANHOUZAIMANMANDIZHANKAIQUANMIANDEXUNLIAN。

                                    CUDADONGZUOXUNLIANZHUYAOYOUYIXIAJIFANGMIANDENEIRONG:FUWO、DUZUO、PAXING,ZHANLI(SHUANGJIAO/DANJIAO)、XINGZOU(ZIRUBAIBEI)、SHANGXIALOUTI、KUA(KUAZHANGAI)、TI(QIU/SHABAO)、PAO、TIAO(SHUANGJIAOTIAO/DANJIAOTIAO/TIAOSHENG/TIAOGUOZHANGAI)、DENG(XIAOZIXINGCHE/HUABAN)。

                                    SHANGZHIDEXUNLIANNEIRONG:SHOUBEIDEQUSHEN、TOUZHI、TUI(QIU/SHABAO)、LADENG。

                                    CUDADONGZUOXUNLIANDEZHUYAOFANGFA:①SHIFAN。②SHOUBASHOUDIFUZHU。③QIANGHUAXUNLIAN,BAOZHENGZHIHELIANG。

                                    JULIRUXIA:

                                    MUBIAO:DUZIZUOQIANGUNFAN

                                    FANGFA:

                                    (1)XIANRANGHAIZIHAOHAOKANJICISHIFAN,RANHOUJIAOTAQIANGUNFANDEFANGFA。

                                    (2)RANGHAIZIBASHOUPINGFANGZAIDIBANSHANG,BATADETOUYADI,YIBIANRANGTAYONGJINGBEIFANGUN。BANGTATAIQITUIFANGUOQU,ZHUJIANDIJIANSHAOBANGZHU。

                                    (3)RANGHAIZIBAICHENGQIANGUNFANDEZISHIHOU,GAOSUTAYONGSHUANGJIAOSHIJINGDENGDIBAN。GUNFANDEBIJIAOHAOHUOHENHAOSHIDOUYAOBIAOYANGTA。

                                  十三张棋牌   (4)YONGDENGZIHUOZHENTOUBADIANZILUOQILAI,RANGHAIZIPAZAISHANGMIAN,TOUJIJIANCONGDIANZIDEYIDUANDIAOGUAXIA。YIBIANBANGTAFANGUN,YIBIANSHUO:“FANGUOQU,FANGUOQU。”ZUODEHAOJIUBIAOYANGTA。

                                    粗大动作训练不一定要买很多感觉统合十三张棋牌的教具。很多项目无需特别的教具,如跨障碍训练,摆个小盒子、小箱子即可。

                                    3.JINGXIDONGZUOXUNLIAN。JINGXIDONGZUOSHEJISHOUHESHOUZHIDEHUODONG。TASHIFAZHANSHENGHUOZILINENGLI,HUAHUA、SHUXIEYIJIZHIYEJINENGDEJICHU。SHUANGSHOUDONGZUOFAZHANCHIYUQUTIDONGZUOFAZHAN,TAXUYAOJIAOZHANGSHIJIANCAINENGJIAYISUIYIKONGZHI。BUNENGSHIERTONGGUOZAODIHUOGUOZHANGSHIJIANDIJINXINGXIAOJIROUDONGZUOXUNLIAN。

                                  十三张棋牌   GUDUZHENGERTONGJINGXIDONGZUOXUNLIANDENEIRONGZHUYAOBAOKUO:ZHUAWO(DABAZHUADOU/WOJINQUANTOU)、DUIZHINIE(JIANDOU/JIAPUTAOGAN)、XIEDIAO(SHUANGSHOUDEDONGZUO:CHUANZHU、CHAXUEHUAPIAN……)、JIQIAO(ZHEZHI、ZHANTIE、SHIJIANDAO、YONGBIHUAHUA、XIEZI)。

                                    JINGXIDONGZUOXUNLIANDEZHUYAOFANGFA:①SHIFAN。②RENWUFENJIE(BAFUZADEDONGZUOFENJIECHENGYIGEYIGEDEXIAOBUZHOU,YIBUYIBUDEJIAO(BIRUZHEZHI)。③SHOUBASHOUFUZHU。LINGWAIZHUYIZUNXUNYOUYIDAONAN,YOUJIANDANDAOFUZADEYUANZE。

                                    JULIRUXIA:

                                    MUBIAO:YONGJIANDAOSUIBIANJIANDONGXI

                                    FANGFA:

                                  十三张棋牌   (1)JIAOHAIZIZHENGQUEDIYONGSHOUZHINAJIANDAO。XIANYONGSHOUWOZHUHAIZIDESHOU,JIAOTAYONGJIANDAO。KAISHISHI,XIANJIANDUANXIZHANGDEZHITIAO(HENGJIAN),HAIZIJIANDEHAOJIUBIAOYANGTA。

                                    (2)YONGJIANDAOJIANZHIBIAN,MEICIJIANYIJIANZI,JIANCHENGZHUANGSHIYONGDESUIZI。

                                    (3)RUGUOHAIZISHIBUHAOJIANZI,KEYIRANGTAYONGJIAZIBASHUIGUOTANGHUORUANTANG(ZAIXIAOYIDIANDEPUTAOGAN)YILEISHIPINCONGYIGERONGQIJIADAOLINGYIGERONGQILI,FANFUCAOZUO。

                                    (4)HAIZIGANGKAISHIJIANDESHIHOU,NINAZHEZHIRANGTAJIAN。ZAIJIANJIANDIRANGTAZIJINAZHEZHIJIAN。

                                    4.SHENGHUOZILINENGLIXUNLIAN。XUNLIANNEIRONGFEICHANGDUO,DANGEXIANGJINENGYOUHENJUTI,JIAZHANGMENRUOBAMEIYICIRENWUANZHAOFAZHANSHUNXUFENJIECHENGYIGEYIGEXIAOBUZHOUJIURONGYIBAJINENGJIAOSHOUJIHAIZI。JUTIKECANZHAODIJIUZHANG。

                                  十三张棋牌   5.RENZHIXUNLIAN。DUIYUMEIYOUKOUYUDEGUDUZHENGERTONGLAISHUOYEKEYIQUANMIANKAIZHAN。YUYANBUSHIJINXINGSUOYOURENZHIRENWUDEXIANJUETIAOJIAN,DANYUYANLIJIEJIANGHUICUJINXIANGPEIDUI、FENLEI、PAIXUDENGZHEIXIECAOZUOJINENG。

                                    RENZHIXUNLIANZHEIYIBUFENDENEIRONGXIANGDANGGUANGFAN。ZONGTIKANBAOKUOJIAOHAIZIRENSHISHIWUHEREN,LEJIEZISHEN,RENSHISHU,LIJIEYUYAN,SHOUSHIHEXIANGZHENGXINGFUHAODENG,BUTONGZHILISHUIPINGDEGUDUZHENGHAIZIYOUBUTONGDEJIAOYUSHIYING,ZUIZHONGDECHAYIHAISHIXIANGDANGDADE。

                                    RENZHIXUNLIANDEFANGFA:YIBANBARENSHIMOUZHONGSHIWUDERENZHIGUOCHENGFENWEISANGEJIEDUAN:

                                  十三张棋牌   DIYIJIEDUAN:BASHIJUECIJIHEMINGCHENGLIANXIQILAI。BIRURENSHIHONGLANLIANGZHONGYANSE。CHUSHIHONGSESHI,JIUSHUO:“ZHEISHIHONGDE”;CHUSHILANSESHISHUO:“ZHEISHILANSEDE。”RANHOU,JIUBAZHEIXIEYOUSEDEDONGXI(KEYISHIJIMU/KAPIAN)FANGZAIHAIZIDEMIANQIAN,HAORANGTAMENKANJIAN。

                                    DIERJIEDUAN:ZHIREN(JIRENSHIXIANGYINGMINGCHENGDEWUPIN)。DUIHAIZISHUO:“JIWOHONGDE”;RANHOUSHUO:“JIWOLANDE。”

                                  十三张棋牌   DISANJIEDUAN:MINGMING(JIJIYIXIANGYINGWUPINDEMINGCHENG)。JIHAIZIKANYIJIANHONGSEDEWUPIN,WENTA:“ZHEISHISHENMESE?”TAYINGGAIHUIDAHONGSE。

                                  十三张棋牌   ZHEIJIGEJIEDUANJIUSHIKANHETING、ZHICHUHESHUOCHU,MEIYIGEJIEDUANYOUMEIYIGEJIEDUANDEBUTONGMUBIAO,BUDOUSHIZAITONGYIJIAOXUESHIDUANWANCHENG。DANSHISHANGYIJIEDUANSHIWANCHENGXIAYIJIEDUANMUBIAODEJICHU。

                                    JULIRUXIA:

                                    MUBIAO:ZHIRENZHANGDUANWUPIN

                                    FANGFA:

                                  十三张棋牌   (1)CONGJIATINGYONGPINZHONGSHOUJIYIXIEZHANGDEHEDUANDEDONGXI,RUKUAIZI、HEYINLIAOYONGDEXIGUAN、CHIZIHEWAZIDENG。

                                    (2)BAYIZHIZHANGDEHEYIZHIDUANDEQIANBIFANGZAIHAIZIMIANQIAN,RANGTAZHICHUZHANGDEYIZHI,SHUODUILE,JIUJIANGLITA。

                                  十三张棋牌   (3)RANGHAIZIMOFANGHUAZHANGXIANHEDUANXIAN。NIYIBIANSHUOZHANGDE、DUANDE,YIBIANRANGHAIZIMOFANGZHEHUAZHANGXIAN、DUANXIAN。

                                    (4)JIAOJIHAIZINAXIESHIZHANGDEDONGXI,NAXIESHIDUANDEDONGXI。GAOSUHAIZISHINEIDEMOUXIEDONGXISHIZHANGDEHAISHIDUANDE,RANHOUWENHAIZI:“ZHEISHIZHANGDEMA?”“ZHEISHIDUANDEMA?”RANGHAIZIZHIREN。

                                    (5)ZHAOXIEZHANGDUBUTONGDEQIANBI、KUAIZI、MUGUN、HUOCHAIGUNHEYAQIANDENGZUO,YOUXI。YONGYIZHISHOUFENBIEWOZHUZHANGDEHUODUANDEWUPINFANGZAIBEIHOU,RANGHAIZICAIDUANDEZAINAER,YONGTONGYANGFANGFAZAICAIZHANGDEZAINAER,YEKEYIDANGZHUZHANGDEYIBUFEN,RANGTACAINAGEZHANG。CAIDUILE,JIUJIYUJIANGLI。

                                    6.语言训练。由于每一个孤独症儿童的语言障碍程度不一样,所选的训练目标也不尽相同。语言训练的目标包括:①开始发音。②单词的表达。③短语。④社会性反应。⑤活动和事件的描述。⑥问问题。⑦社会性对话。⑧主动表达、发表意见等等。

                                  十三张棋牌   DUIYUWANQUANMEIYOUKOUYUDEGUDUZHENGHAIZILAISHUO,YAOXUEXIYUYANBIXUJUBEIYIXIAJIGETIAOJIAN:①MOFANGNENGLI。②JIYINENGLI。③LIJIENENGLI。④YOUBIAODAXUYAODEDONGJI。⑤KAISHIDUIMIANBUBIAOQING、SHENGYINJICHUNBUHUODONGGANXINGQU。ZHEIBUFENHAIZIDEYUYANJIAOXUEKEYICAIYONGSHOUSHIYUYUYANYULIANHESHIYONGDEFANGSHI。

                                    YUYANXUNLIANYINGBARICHANGSHENGHUODECHANGJINGZUOWEIZHUYAODEJIAOXUEHUANJING。ZUODAOSUISHISUIDI、JIUDIQUCAI、FANFULIANXI,SHENGHUOZHONGXUE,SHENGHUOZHONGYONG,ZHISHIYIXIEJICHUJINENGYAOZAIKETANGSHANGJIAOSHOU。

                                    YUYANSHIJIAOLIUDEGONGJU。JIAZHANGMENZAIXUANZEMEIYIGETESHUDEYUYANMUBIAOSHI,DOUYINGSHIWEILESHIYINGHAIZIMOUZHONGTEBIEDEJIAOWANGXUYAO。LIRU,SHOUXIANJIAOJITANEIXIETAJIANGYAOSHIYONGDEDANCIJU,YIDEDAOTAXIANGYAODEDONGXI。DUIYUMEIYIGEHAIZILAISHUOSHOUXIANXUANZEDEDANCIJUDOUBUYIYANG。ZHEIGEHAIZIKENENGSHI“BINGGAN”HE“PUTAOGAN”;LINGYIGEHAIZIKENENGSHI“CHUQU”。MEIYIGEJIAOXUEJIQIAOYAOKAOLVDAOBUTONGHAIZIDEXINGQU。LIRU,YIXIEHAIZIXIHUANCHANGGE,JIUYONGCHANGGEDEXINGSHIBAYUYANNEIRONGBIAODACHULAI;YOUDEHAIZIXIHUANSHENTIYUNDONG,NEIJIUZAIHUODONGZHONGQUJIAOTASHUOHUA;YOUDEHAIZIXIHUANTUPIAN,NEITUPIANJIUSHIZUIHAODEYUYANXUNLIANCAILIAO。

                                    YUYANXUNLIANDEZHUYAOFANGFA:①SHIFAN。②SUZAO。③QIANGHUA。

                                    JULIRUXIA:

                                  十三张棋牌   MUBIAO:SHUO“MEIYOULE”

                                    FANGFA:

                                    (1)DANGHAIZICHIWANFANHOU,DUIHAIZISHUO:“MEIYOULE”,BINGGULIHAIZIGENZHENIFANFUSHUO。RUGUOHAIZISHUOLE,JIUZANTONGDISHUO:“DUI!NIUNAIYIJINGMEIYOULE!”

                                  十三张棋牌   (2)LIYONGHAIZIXIHUANDEWANJU,GENHAIZIYIQIZUOYOUXI,BAWANJUZANGQILAI,GUOYIHUIERDUIHAIZISHUO:“MEIYOULE”。GULIHAIZIFANFUSHUO:“MEIYOULE。”

                                  十三张棋牌   (3)YOURENCONGWUZIHUOJIAZHONGWAICHUSHI,DUIHAIZISHUO:“CHUQULE”,RANGHAIZIZHONGFUSHUO。HAIZIRUGUOGENZHEZHONGFUSHUO,JIUCHENGZANTA。DENGTANENGZHONGFUHOU,YOUSHEICHUQUSHIJIUWENTA:“BABANAERQULA?”“MOUMOUNAERQULE?”GULIHAIZISHUO:“CHUQULE!”

                                  十三张棋牌   (4)HAIZINENGZHUDONGDISHUOCHU“MEIYOULE”,JIUGULITABA“MEIYOU”YUQITACIYULIANJIEQILAI。SHIFANJIHAIZI:“XIAOMING,NIUNAI(BABA、QIUDENG)MEIYOULE!”RANHOUZAIWEN:“SHENMEMEIYOULE?”

                                    (5)BAWUPINZANGQI,DUIHAIZISHUO:“MEIYOULE。”RANHOUDANGHAIZISHUO“HAIYAO”SHI,NIZAIBAWUPINNACHULAIJITA。

                                    (6)ZAIWAN“ZANGMAOER”YOUXISHI,YONGJIANDANDEYINZANGFANGFABIAOSHI“MEIYOULE”。RANGHAIZISHUO:“MEIYOULE!”“ZAIZHEIER!”NIYONGSHOUZHEZHUYANJINGSHUO:“XIAOMINGMEIYOULE!”FANGKAISHOUZHIHOURANGHAIZISHUO:“XIAOMINGZAIZHEIER!”

                                    7.社会交往十三张棋牌技能训练。对小年龄儿童来说,社会交往技能训练主要从培养社会性游戏技能、社会性互相交往技能人手。社会性游戏技能训练包括:与人和物的接触;操作物品的技巧;遵从简单的游戏规则(等候、排队、轮候);参与假扮游戏;接电话;独立完成任务。社会性互相交往技能的训练应包括:与人接触的正确方式(对视、呼叫反应、接受别人的亲近);社交沟通的能力(表达需求、愿望、遵从指令、请求帮助、征求意见、表示意见、交换信息);建立适当的社交反应(表达感谢、亲热、反对、自我控制、尊重他人、帮助他人、理解他人)。

                                    社会交往技能是孤独症患者严重缺陷的领域。虽然孤独症儿童可以记住社会性的问候,也可以学会在游戏中轮候等,但是他们不能本能地理解社会意识,不易从社会性相互交往中获得快乐,要掌握较高水平的社会交往技能并不是件容易的事。日本学者荫山英顺曾指出:“问题的核心在于,孤独症儿童对于他人感情的理解是需要长期培养教育的,这是一个极其困难而又关键的课题。这种对他人感情的理解,首先是在与治疗者、父母等有着非常深切交流的成人中逐渐培养,然后在与周围社会的成人的交流中提高的,最后是在与小伙伴的交往中发展的。这种顺序是由孤独症儿童在与人交往的机会多少和深度来决定的。因此,这种对人关系范围的拓宽,在孩子所处的社会环境中,是他们毕生都应认真对待的重要课题。即时孤独症儿童对人关系范围的拓宽有了相当的进展,周围的人们仍要努力地帮助他们,以求得更大的进步。”

                                    JULIRUXIA:

                                    MUBIAO:DENGDAIANSHUNXUCANJIAYOUXIHUOBISAI

                                    FANGFA:

                                  十三张棋牌   (1)DAOGONGYUANHUOGUANGCHANGQU,RANGHAIZIKANKANNEILIDEHAIZIMENANSHUNXUPAIDUIDENGDAIZHEWANHUATIDEQINGXING。

                                    (2)3GEHAIZIYIQIWANERGUNQIUHEJIEQIUYOUXI。

                                  十三张棋牌   (3)JINCANSHI,BUYAOXIANJIANGFANCAISHENGZAIMEIGERENDEPANZILIHUOWANLI,ERYAOTAMENLUNLIUQUZIJIAICHIDEFANCAI。RANGHAIZIDENGDAOLUNDAOTASHI,ZIJIQULINGQU。

                                    (4)JIANGLIHAIZIANSHUNXUWANHUOBANQITASHIQING。

                                    (5)RANGHAIZIWANTIAOFANGZI、TIAOPIJINER、WANZHIPAIDENGYOUXI。ZAIYUQUANJIARENYIQIWANSHI,YEYAOKOUTOUZHISHITAYUQITARENYIYANGANSHUNXUJINXING。YOUSHIYEKECHUANGSHEHUANJINGRANGHAIZIDIYIGELUNDAO。

                                  十三张棋牌   &BANGZHUGUDUZHENGERTONGGAISHANZHUYILI。ZHUYILIDUANZAN、YIFENSAN,SHIGUDUZHENGERTONGZAIXUEXIZHONGZUITUCHUDEWENTI。ZHUYILIDEXINGCHENGHEFAZHANYUSHENJINGXITONGDEFAYUYOUGUAN,YEYUHOUTIANDEJIAOYUYOUGUAN。YINCI,WOMENHAISHIKEYITONGGUOJIAOYUXUNLIANLAIGAISHANGUDUZHENGERTONGDEZHUYI。

                                  十三张棋牌   (1)PEIYANGERTONGGUANZHUZHOUWEISHIJIEDEXINGWEIXIGUAN:YAOXIANGGAIBIANERTONG“SHIERBUJIAN”、“TINGERBUWEN”DEXINGWEIXIGUAN,JIAOZHEJIUBIXUYOUYIGEQIANGLIEDEJIAOYUYISHI。SHANYUYINDAOERTONGQUTING、QUKAN、QUCHUMOZHOUWEIDESHIJIE,ERJUEBUNENGDUITADEXINGWEI“SHUSHIWUDU”。ZAIRICHANGDEJIATINGSHENGHUOZHONG,NIWULUNJITASHENMEDONGXI,SHOUXIANYAOJIAOHAIZIKANYIKAN,MOYIMO。NIZAIRICHANGSHENGHUODEGEGEHUANJIEZHONG(QICHUANG、CHUANYI、XILIAN、CHIFAN),YAOYIBIANBANGZHUHAIZI,YIBIANYAOQIUHAIZIZHUYIZHENGZAIJINXINGDEHUODONG,ERBUNENGRANGHAIZIXIANGGEXIAOMUTOURENYIYANGRENPINGNISIHOUTA。ZAIWAICHUDEGEZHONGHUODONGZHONG,NIYAODAIZHEJUDADEREQINGQUYOUDAOHAIZI,BANGZHUHAIZIGUANCHAZHOUWEIDEREN、WU、FASHENGDESHIQING。TABUDONG,NIKEYIJIANGJITATING,BINGLAZHETADESHOUQUZHI、QUCHUMO。YEKEYIDAISHANGTAXUEXIGUODEKAPIAN,ZAIDABEIJINGXIAQUPEIDUI,QUBIANBIETAYIJINGCHUBULEJIEDESHIWU,MANMANYANGCHENGHAIZIGUANZHUZHOUWEISHIJIEDEXINGWEIXIGUAN。

                                  十三张棋牌   (2)LIYONGWUYIZHUYIQUFAZHANYOUYIZHUYI:GUDUZHENGERTONGDEWUYIZHUYI(MEIYOUZIJUEMUDEDEZHUYI)HAOYUYOUYIZHUYI(YOUZIJUEMUDEDEZHUYI)。BIRU,TAHUIZHANGSHIJIANDIZHUANZHUYUMOUXIANGHUODONG(RUKANXUANZHUANDEWUTI)HUOWANTAZIJIDEYOUXI,HUOZHETEBIEZHONGQINGYIJIANYILIANWU,DANQUEHENNANRANGTAYOUYISHIDIQUZHUYIRENHUOMOUJIANWUPIN。ZAIJIAOXUEZHONG,WOMENKEYILIYONGERTONGXIHUANDEWUPIN(BAOKUOSHIPIN),YONGTIAOJIANJIAOHUANDEFANGSHI(RUGUOFUCONG,JIUKEYIDEDAOXIAIDEWUPIN)QUYINDAOERTONGZHUYIXUEXIMUBIAO。ZAITAZHUYILIJIZHONGDESHUNJIANFACHUZHILING,SHITAMASHANGZHUYIXUEXIMUBIAO(REN、WU、HUODONG)。ZUOCHUZHENGQUEFANYINGZHIHOU,LIJIJIYUJIANGLI。SHANGKEKAISHI,YONGTAXIHUANDEWUPINQUDIAOZHENGQINGXU。XIAKEHOU,YOUBANEIXIEWUPINZUOZHENGQIANGHUAWUJIANGLIJITA。DUIYULIJIELIJIAOHAODEHAIZI,ZEKEYICAIQUSHIXIANXUNUODEFANGSHI,GAOSUTA,ZUOHAOLESHIKEYIDEDAOSHENME,QUBANGZHUTAXUEHUIKONGZHIZIJIDEZHUYILI。

                                    (3)CHONGFENLIYONGZHUOMIANHUODONG。SUOYOUZHUOMIANDEHUODONG(RUCHUANZHU、CHAPIAN、TUSE、BIANglj、PEIDUI、FENLEI)DOUJUYOUXUNLIANZHUYILIDEGONGNENG,ZHISHIYAOCHONGFENLIYONGTAMEN。ZAIXUNLIANZHONG,JIAOZHEYAOSHOUJIYANKUAI,KANDAOHAIZIDEZHUYILIFENSANLE(DONGZHANGXIWANG、LANYANGYANGDIZUO),YAOMASHANGDIAOZHENG。CHULEYANYUFUZHU,SHUO“KANZHE’’WAI,GENGDALIANGDESHIXUYAOYONGSHENTI“FUZHU”,YONGSHOUFUZHENGTADETOU,HUOQIAOYIXIATADESHOUBEI,HAIKEYIYONGSHOUZHIQIAOYIXIAZHUOZI、ZHIYIXIAXUEXICAILIAOLAITIXINGTA。

                                  十三张棋牌   (4)SHEJIXUNLIANZHUYILIDEHUODONG、YOUXIYUZHUYILIXUNLIANYOUGUANDEHUODONGYOU:ZHUIZONGYIDONGDEWUTI——QIQIU、PAOPAO、GUNDONGDEQIU;XUNZHAOBEIZANGQIHUOBEIYANGAIZHUDEWUPIN;TOUQIU、TAOQUAN、DABAOLINGQIU;ZOUMIGONGDENG。

                                    9.GAISHANERTONGGANZHIJUEYICHANG:GANJUEDE“PIANHAO”HEGANJUEDE“YANE”SHIGUDUZHENGERTONGGANZHIJUEFAZHANFANGMIANDEZHUYAOWENTI。WOMENKEYICAIQUYIXIECUOSHIQUBANGZHUTAMEN。

                                    (1)YUNDONGXUNLIANKEKEYIGAISHANGUDUZHENGERTONGDEGANZHIJUEYICHANG,GANZHIJUEDEFAZHANYOULAIYUERTONGDONGZUO(CUDADONGZUO、JINGXIDONGZUO)DECHONGFENXIEDIAOFAZHAN。CHUDADONGZUOZHONGDEPA、ZOU、PAO、TIAO、TOUZHI,JIJINGXIDONGZUOZHONGDESHOUWAN、SHOUZHIHUODONGDEDUOYANGXING,KUODALEERTONGDETINGJUE、SHIJUE、DONGJUE、CHUJUEDEGANZHIFANWEI,SHIERTONGHUODELEDUOFANGWEIDEFENGFUCIJI。ZAIDONGZUOXUNLIANGUOCHENGZHONG,JIAOZHEYAOYOUHENQIANGDEYISHIQUYINDAOHAIZIZHUYIKANREN、KANWU、KANGEZHONGXUEXICAILIAO,YINDAOHAIZIZHUYITINGZHILINGBINGZUOCHUZHENGQUEFANYING,ZHUJIANDISHITAYOUBEIDONGDIGANZHICIJIWUDAOZHUDONGZIJUEDIQUZHUYICIJIWU。DUOXIANGDONGZUOXIETONGPEIHEDEDONGZUOXUNLIANFEICHANGZHONGYAO。BIRU,PAIQIU、SHUANGJIAOCAIZHIXIANZOU、TIAOSHENG、QISANLUNCHE、YOUYONG、HUAHANBINGDENGXIANGHUODONG。

                                  十三张棋牌   (2)SHEJIZHUANMENDEKECHENG,GAISHANGANZHIJUEDEFAZHANBUZU,WEISHIJUEZHUYIBIANHUANTAIMAN(ZHANGSHIJIANDININGSHIWUGUANCIJIWU)DEERTONGSHEJIJINJULI、YUANJULIDISAOSHISHUXIWUPIN,BINGYIYIQULAIFANGRENZHIDINGDIDIANDEKE;WEISHIJUEZHUYILIBUJIZHONGDEHAIZISHEJIZHAOWUPIN,BAWUPINZANGQILAIHUOYANGAIQILAI、WANXIANGQIANHEDEPEIDUI,WANPINBANHUODONGDENGKECHENG。

                                    TINGJUEXUNLIANDEKECHENGKEYOULIANGGEBUFEN:TINGJUEBIANBIE(LIJIESHENGYINDEYIYI)XUNLIANJITINGJUEJIYIXUNLIAN。TINGJUEBIANBIEXUNLIANDEKECHENGYOU:SHENGYIN(DONGWUJIAOSHENG、JIAOTONGGONGJUSHENG)JIWUTI(DONGWUJIJIAOTONGGONGJU)DEPEIDUI。TINGJUEJIYIXUNLIANDEKECHENGYOU:GANZHIHECHAYI(SHULIANGDECHAYI、QINGZHONGDECHAYI)DESHENGYIN(JIZHANGHEQIAOMUZHUOMIAN),RANGHAIZITINGHOUMOFANG;ZHONGFUSHUZI(YOUSHAOGEDAODUOGE)、DUANYU(ZHEISHIZHENDUIYUYANNENGLIJIAOHAODEHAIZI)。

                                  十三张棋牌   GAISHANCHUJUEYICHANGDEKECHENGKEXUANZEDUOZHONGZHICAIDECIJIWU(RUYUMAO、HAIMIAN、SHUAZI、SHUI、SHAZI)LAIJIECHUHAIZIDESHOU、JIAOHETUIYIJITADESHENTIQITABUWEI,YIYOUXIDEFANGSHIJINXING,YICIZENGJIAHAIZIDUICHUJUEDEMINGANXING。

                                  十三张棋牌   (3)YOUYISHIDIJINXINGGANJUE“SHIYING”XUNLIAN,DUIYUGUDUZHENGERTONGGANDAO“YANE”DETINGJUE、SHIJUEJICHUJUECIJI,RUGUOCAIQUYIZHONGLIANXUQIANGCIJIDEFANGFA,KENENGDUIGAISHANGANJUEYICHANGYOUBANGZHU。BIRU,HAIZIPARENSHENGXUANNAODEHUANJING,JIUJINGCHANGDAITAQUNEIZHONGHUANJING;HAIZIPAXILINYU,JIUJINGCHANGSHIZHEJITAXILINYU;HAIZIBUXIHUANRENDECHUFU,JIUJINGCHANGQUFUMOTADESHENTIGEBUFEN。GEZHONGCIJIDELIANXUZUOYONGKESHIHAIZIZHEIZHONGGANJUEDEGANSHOUXINGTIGAO,,CONGERZHUJIANSHIYINGGEZHONGCIJI。

                                    10.行为干预:孤独症儿童有很多问题行为,有些问题行为是孤独症儿童所特有的,比如人际交往障碍、沟通障碍及特异的兴趣与行为,问题行为则并非孤独症儿童所特有。导致儿童问题行为的因素很多,发育迟缓、孤独症病患、教育处理不当、身体不适及环境,都是我们在分析孤独症儿童的问题行为时应注意考虑的因素。

                                  十三张棋牌   (1)ZHUYAOYUANZE:CHULIGUDUZHENGERTONGDEWENTIXINGWEIDEZUIJIBENDEYUANZEYOULIANGTIAO:YISHIBANGZHU、GULIHAIZIZENGJIAWEIRENJIESHOUDEQIADANGXINGWEI;ERSHIBANGZHUHAIZIJIANSHAOWEIRENBUJIESHOUDEXINGWEI。DANGJIAOZHENENGNAIXINXIZHI、CHIZHIYIHENGDIBANGZHUHAIZIXUEHUITASUOQUEFADEJINENGYUXINGWEI(BIRU,SHEJIAOGOUTONGNENGLIJIDUOZHONGYULEDEJINENG)ZHISHI,JIUSHIWENTIXINGWEIJIANSHAOZHIRI。MIANDUIHAIZIZHUDUODEWENTIXINGWEI,CHULEYAOYIGEYIGEDICHULIZHIWAI,HAIYINGGAIZUODAO“SIBU”、“SIYAO”:

                                    ◎BUYAOZHISHICHENGFAWENTIXINGWEI,ERSHIYAODUOGULILIANGHAOXINGWEI。

                                    ◎BUYAOZHISHIMAIYUAN,ERSHIYAOYINGYONGABCMOSHIRENZHENFENXI、ZHAOCHUYINQIWENTIXINGWEIDEYUANYINJICHULIDECELVE。

                                    ◎BUYAOZHISHIZUZHI,ERSHIYAOSHANYULIYONGHEZHUANYI。

                                  十三张棋牌   BUYAOZHISHUO:“BUXUZHEIYANGZUO!”ERSHIYAOSHUO:“WOLAIBANGNIZHEIYANGZUO。”

                                  十三张棋牌   (2)FANGFAZAIJIATINGXUNLIANZHONGHAIKEYIKEXUEDIYINGYONGXIALIEFANGFA。

                                  十三张棋牌   1)XIAOTUI。DUIYUYI“HUODE” (WUPIN、ZHUYI)HE“TAOBI/FANGZHI”(ZUOSHI、QUMOUGEHUANJING)WEIMUDEDEZHONGZHONGWENTIXINGWEI(BIRUFAPIQIDENG),CAIQU“XIAOTUIFA”SHISHOUXUAN。DUIHAIZIDEZHEIXIEXINGWEIYAOGUYIBULICAI,ERQIEYAONENGJIANCHIZHUYUANZEBINGNENGCHIZHIYIHENG,TONGSHIDUIHAIZIHAODEBIAOXIANYAODALIBIAOYANG。JINGGUOYIGEJIEDUAN,HAIZIDEWENTIXINGWEIKEYIZHUJIANJIANSHAO。

                                    2)CHENGFA。YOUXIEWENTIXINGWEIBIXULIJIXIAOCHU,BIRUYAOREN、YANZHONGPOHUAIDONGXI、YANZHONGZISHANGDENG,ZHEISHICAIQUYIDINGDECHENGFASHOUDUANJIUXIANDEHENYOUBIYAO。YAORENHEYANZHONGHUIHUAIDONGXIDEXINGWEIFASHENGHOU,CHULEYANLIQIANZE:“ZHEIYANGBUDUI”ZHIWAI,YAOLIJIBAHAIZISONGQUGELI。DUIYUYANZHONGZISHANGDEXINGWEIYAOCAIQUXIANZHISHENTIDECUOSHI,KELIKEBAOZHUTADESHENTIDENG。

                                  十三张棋牌   3)ZHUANYI。DUIYUYIXIEJUYOU“ZIWOYULE/ZIWOMANZU”HUO“SHIFANG/SHUHUAN”GONGNENGDEZIWOCIJIXINGWEI(RUYAOSHOU、NIANNIANYOUCIDENG,HAIYOUYIXIEGUZHI、ZHONGFUXINGWEI),YAOZHAOYIGETIDAIXINGWEIRANGTAXUEXI,RANGHAIZIBAZHUYILIZHUANYIDAOQITAYOUYIYIDESHIWUSHANG,TONGSHI,YAOZHUYIWEIQIJIANLIYOUXIAODESHEHUIXINGWEI,DUOJIAOTAZUOHUDONGHUODONGHEYOUXI。BIRUBANGCHENGRENZUOSHI,YIKUAIERWANPINTUYOUXIHUOQIULEIYOUXI。

                                    4)阻断。即把行为的刺激源切断。比如,处理孩子摔东西、撕东西的行为;首先通过改变环境来减少不良行为,如把贵重的、易碎的东西放到儿童拿不到的地方;把能撕的东西(如报纸、书籍)收藏起来。

                                    YINDAOERTONGDUISHENGHUOZHONGSHIYONGDE、ZHENGCHANGDEHUODONGGANXINGQU,SHIJIEJUEGUDUZHENGERTONGPOHUAIXINGWEI、ZIWOCIJIXINGWEIDEZUIJIABANFA。

                                  十三张棋牌   5)XITONGTUOMIN。ZHIGUDUZHENGHUANZHEZAIANYIERFANGSONGDEXINJINGXIAZHUJIANDIJIEJINSUOJUPADESHIWU,HUOSHIZHUJIANTIGAOKONGJUDEYOUGUANCIJIQIANGDU,SHIJUPASHIWUDEMINGANXINGJIANGDI,SHENZHIWANQUANXIAOSHI。BIRU,CHULIGUDUZHENGERTONGJUPADAORENDUODECANGUANJIUCANDEXINGWEI,JIUKEYIWEITAANPAIZHEIYANGYIGECHENGXU:

                                    DUIHAIPATITOU、HAIPAXILINYU、HAIPADANDUJINFANGJIANDENGYILEIDEWENTIXINGWEI,DOUKEYISHEJICHUYIGEZHUJIANTUOMINDECHENGXUBANGZHUERTONG,SHITAMENBUZAIHAIPA。

                                  十三张棋牌   (WU)TIEXINTISHI

                                    CHULEYISHANGWOMENLIECHUDEJIDALINGYUDEXUNLIANNEIRONGZHIWAI,JIAZHANGMENZAIJIAOYUXUNLIANHAIZIDESHIHOU,HAIYAOTEBIELIUXINXIALIEWENTI。

                                    1.关注孩子的精神世界。孤独症孩子需要什么?他们需要特殊教育,一份高度结构化的个别教育计划对孩子的康复非常有帮助;他们需要语言训练、运动训练、行为训练;他们可能还需要食物疗法等,但在我们周密考虑这些帮助孩子的具体措施时,有没有想到过在精神上给孩子什么帮助呢?

                                    SHISHISHANG,DUIYUSHENSHOUJIHUANKUNRAODEGUDUZHENGERTONGLAISHUO,ZUIXUYAODESHILAIZIFUMU、LAIZIZHOUWEIRENMENDUITAMENJINGSHENSHANGDEJUDAGUANHUAI,BUGUANZHEIGEERTONGDEXIANZHUANGHEJIANGLAIRUHE,JINGSHENSHANGDEKUAILESHISHOUYAODE。KUAILEDEYUANQUANLAIZINAER?SHOUXIANSHILAIFUMUHEZHOUWEIRENMENDEDALIANGJIYU,RANHOULAIZIERTONGZIJIDECHUANGZAO。NEIME,WOMENZENYANGZUOCAISUANSHIJILEHAIZIJUDADEJINGSHENGUANHUAI,CAINENGJIHAIZIDAILAIKUAILENI?

                                    (1)LIJIEHAIZIDEJIHUAN,BUDANGMIANDUIHAIZISUIYIFAPIQI(YINWEITAMENSHINEIYANGDEWUZHUHEWUGU),MIANDUIGUDUZHENGERTONGDEZHONGZHONGBUKESIYI、LINGRENNANKAN、LINGRENXINSUIDEXINGWEI,WOMENYOUYIBAIGELIYOUFAPIQI,DANSHI,ZHEIYUSHIWUBU,ZHINENGJIHAIZIJINGSHENSHANGDAILAIGENGDUODECHUANGSHANG。RUGUOSHIZAINANYIKONGZHIZIJIDEQINGXU,NEIJIUBIKAIHAIZI,DUODAOYIBIANERQUTONGKUAIDIKUYICHANG,HUOZHEZHAONIDEQINRENHUOPENGYOUJINQINGDISUSHUOYIFAN。

                                    (2)ZUNZHONGHAIZIDEZIWOSHIJIE,JIARUJINQU,ZAIDAITACHULAI(YINWEITAMENDUIZHOUWEISHIJIESHINEIYANGDEKUNHUO,ZIJIZHAOBUDAOYITIAOTONGWANGXIANSHIDELU)。DANGNIKANJIANHAIZIZAINEILIMEIWANMEILEDIYUANDIZHUANQUAN,HUOZHEFANFUDIBAMOUXIEDONGXIPAICHENGYIPAI,HUOZHEZAINEILIMIFENGZHEYANJINGBASHOUFANGZAIYANQIANBUTINGDINIUDONGSHI,NIBUYAOHECHITA:“BIEZUOLE!”ERSHIYINGGAIQINGQINGDIZOUJINTA,RUGUOTABUQIANGLIEDIFANDUIDEHUA,NIMANMANDIJIARUDAOTADEHUODONGZHONG,ZAIMANMANDIBATADAIRENYIGEXINDEYOUXIZHONG。

                                    (3)CHONGFENLIJIETAMENZAIXUEXIZHONGDEKUNNAN,JIAOXUESHEJIYAOFEICHANGRENXINGHUA,YAOJIYUTAMENBIYAODEZHONGZHONGFUZHU(YINWEIJIHUANZAOCHENGLETAMENZHONGZHONGNENGLIDEQUESHI)。JIEGOUHUADEHUANJING、JIEGOUHUADEJIAOXUENEIRONG、、JIEGOUHUADEJIAOXUECHENGXU,HUIDUINEIXIELIJIEYOUKUNNANDEERTONGHENYOUBANGZHU。DUIYUYIGEGEZHONGNENGLIYANZHONGQUESHIDEHAIZI,MAIYUANTABENSHIMEIYOUDAOLIDE,SUOYI,YIKAISHIDEXUEXIZENMEFUZHUDOUBUWEIGUO。SHOUBASHOUDIJIAOTAMENXUEXIGEZHONGJINENG,ZHUJIANDIBATAMENYINRUDAOYIGEYOUYIYIDESHIJIEZHONGQU,SHIWOMENBIXUNULIQUZUODEGONGZUO。

                                  十三张棋牌   2.CHONGFENBIAODADUIHAIZIDEAI。WOMENDUIGUDUZHENGERTONGDEAIBUZHISHIYAOAIZAIXINLI,GENGYAOYITEBIEJUTIDEFANGSHICHONGFENBIAODA。NIYONGQINQIEDEHUAYU、WEIXIAODEMIANKONG、CHONGMANCIAIDEYANSHENHEWENROUDEFUCHUQUCHUANDANIDUIHAIZISHENQIEDEAI。NIYAOBUDUANDIDUITASHUO: “HAIZI,MAMAAINI!”DANGHAIZIWEIMOUSHIGANDAOJINZHANG、HAIPA,NIYAOLOUJINTA(RUGUOTABUFANDUI),BINGDUITASHUO:“BIEHAIPA,YOUMAMAZAI!”RANGHAIZICONGNIDEXINGWEIZHONGQUGANSHOUNISHIDUOMEDIAITA,QUXUEXIZENMEBIAODATADEAI,RANGHAIZIZAIAIDEFENWEIZHONGCHENGZHANG。DANGYOUYITIANNIZHONGYUDEDAOHUIBAOSHI,NIHEHAIZIDOUSHIZUIXINGFU、ZUIKUAILEDEREN。

                                    3.XINSHANGHAIZI。YONGXINKUAJIANGHAIZIXINSHANGYIGEHUANBENGLUANTIAO、CONGYINGLINGLIDEHAIZIRONGYI,DANXINSHANGYIGEGUDUZHENGHAIZIQUEBUNEIMERONGYI,YINWEIWOMENKANDETAIDUODESHITADEQUEXIAN。DANSHIWOMENBIXUXUEHUIQUXINSHANGTAMEN,YONGXINQUKUAZANTAMEN,ERBUSHIWUXIUZHIDIMAIYUANTAMEN。YEXUHAIZIZAIMOUXIEFANGMIANYOUMINGXIANDEQUEXIAN,DANSHITAMENYEYIDINGYOUHENDUOKEAIZHICHU,ZHEIXUYAOWOMENDIAOZHENGXINTAI,ZHUANHUANJIAODU,YONGXINQUFAXIAN。WEIZANYANGHAIZIDEMEIYIDIANJINBU,WOMENYAOBULINXIYIMEIZHICI,YONGZHENXINQUKUAZANTA:“NIZHENBANG!”“NIZUODUILE!”RANGHAIZIZAINIXINSHANGDEYANGUANGLI、ZAINIDASHENGZANYANGDEHUAYULIHUODEKUAILE、PEIYANGCHUZIXIN。WOMENHAIYINGZHENCHENGDIQUQIDAIHAIZIDEWEILAI,ZAINIDEZHENCHENGDEQIDAIZHONG,HAIZIDEQIANLIYEHUIYIDIANERYIDIANERDIBEIKAIFACHULAI。

                                  十三张棋牌   4.ZUOHAIZIDEWANBAN,JIHAIZIDAILAIKUAILE。GUDUZHENGERTONGBUHUIWAN,BUHUIYUTONGLINGRENZUOYOUXI。ZHEISHITAMENDESHEHUIRENZHIQUEXIANDETUCHUBIAOXIAN,YESHITAMENBUKUAILEDEYIGEYUANYIN。CHONGPOZHEIZHONGZHANGAIDEYOUXIAOBANFAJIUSHI,FUMUSHOUXIANLAICHONGDANGHAIZIWANSHUA、YOUXIDEHUOBAN。NIYAOHUIWANERSHIDEGEZHONGJIANDANYOUXI:PAXIALAIRANGHAIZIDANGMAQI;RANGHAIZIZUOZAINITUISHANG“QIDAMA”;NIYAOHUIJIHAIZIJU“GAOGAO”……NIHAIYAOYINDAOHAIZIWANGENGYOUYIYIDEGEZHONGYOUXI:ZHUIZHU、ZANGMAOMAO、BISAI……YOUXIHEHAODEWANBANSHIHAIZIQINGXUZUIHAODEWENDINGJI。ZAINIDEBANGZHUXIA,HAIZIBUJINHUODELEJINGSHENSHANGDEKUAILE,TONGSHIYEXUEDAOLEYIXIEYOUXIDEJINENGJIGUIZE。GENGZHONGYAODESHIHUDONGYOUXISHIXUEXIRENJIJIAOWANGDEZUIHAOMEIJIE。

                                    RUGUOWOMENJIZHUYILEYIGEZHONGJUTIDEFANGSHIQUBANGZHUGUDUZHENGERTONG,YOUZHUYILEZAIJINGSHENSHANGJIYUTAMENJUDADEGUANHUAI,NEIME,ZHEIGEHAIZIYIDINGSHIXINGFUDE、KUAILEDE。

                                  十三张棋牌   WOMENZHIDAOJIAZHANGZAIGUDUZHENGERTONGDEZAOQIJIAOYUZHONGZUOWEIZHUYAODEJIAOYUZHESHIYIJIANJIZHONGYAOYOUBURONGYIDESHI,YINWEIMUQIANWOGUODEXIANSHIQINGKUANGSHIJIATINGKANGFUGONGZUODEYIXIEHUANJIEHAIMEIYOUXIANGYINGDECUOSHILAIZHICHI。BIRUJIAZHANGDEXITONGPEIXUNWENTI,JIATINGXUNLIANDEZHIDAOJIAOSHIWENTI,JIAZHANGDEYIXILIEDUWUWENTI,JIATINGDEXINLIZIXUNWENTI,HAIYOUJINGJIZHICHIDENGWENTI。WOMENXIANGXIN,SUIZHEGUOJIA“SHIYIWU”CANJIRENSHEQUKANGFUGUIHUADEZHUJIANDESHISHI,YISHANGWENTIHUISUIZHEGONGZUODEJINZHANJINYIBUYINQIYOUGUANFANGMIANDEGAODUZHONGSHIERDEYIZHUYIJIEJUE。WOMENZAIPANZHEZHEIYITIANDEDAOLAIDETONGSHI,JIAZHANGMENDANGQIANBIEWUXUANZEDIHAIYAOKEFUKUNNAN,YONGGANDICHENGDANQIJIAOYUHAIZIGAIBIANGUDUZHENGMINGYUNDEZHONGDAN。

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