十三张棋牌

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              2. 中国最大孤独症支援网络 | 会员注册 | 会员登陆 | 会员中心 | 手机版

                孤独症能够痊愈吗?

                2010/7/24 8:10:01 来源:北京市孤独症儿童康复协会 作者:佚名 字体: 发表评论 打印此文

                  ——读《为自闭症儿童的一生做好准备》

                  中国精协孤独症委员会十三张棋牌顾问  孙敦科

                  (YI)

                  孤独症能够痊愈(recover)吗?由于病因不明,至今对于大多数孤独症患者而言,痊愈仍然是不现实的奢望。蔡逸周教授曾经说过,天底下只有一个天宝(Temple Gradine)。何况我们在1998年就听过美国专业人员介绍,天宝做报告时一经打断,就要从头讲起。

                十三张棋牌   1972NIANKENNA(Leo Kanner)DUI1943NIANYOUTABAODAOGUODE11MINGGUDUZHENGHUANERJINXINGZHUIZONGDIAOCHA,FAXIANYIREN(NAN)DAXUEBIYE,DANRENYINXINGCHUNAYUAN;YIREN(NAN)JIESHOUZHIYEXUNLIANHOUDANRENGONGZHI,JIANDUHUANJING(DAQI)WURANGONGZUO;YIREN(NAN)WUZIFAYUYAN,ZHENGZHUANGWURENHEGAISHAN,YUANXIEZHUNONGSHI,HOUZAILAORENZHIJIADANGZHUSHOUZUOJIAWU;ERREN(NAN)YOUDIANXIAN,QIZHONGYIRENZAI29SUISIYUDIANXIANFAZUO;YIREN28SUIYIHOURUSHOURONGSUO,DANCONGBUCANYURENHEJITIHUODONG;ERRENXINGZONGBUMING;SIREN(YINANSANNV)JIN20SUIZUOYOURUZHOULIJINGSHENBINGYUANJIESHOUZHANGQIKANHUERWUKANGFUKENENG。ZAI11MINGBINGLIZHONG,ZHIYOUERRENDESHEHUISHIYINGQINGXINGLIANGHAO。

                  RIBENSHIJINGGAOMINGZAI1978NIANBAODAO,ZAITADEYUHOUYANJIUZHONG,16SUIYISHANGDE40MING(NAN31MING,NV9MING)GUDUZHENGHUANZHEZHONG,7REN(NAN6REN,NV1REN)YOUGUDINGGONGZIZHIWU;28RENYUHOUBUJIA,QIZHONG16RENZAIJIALI,8RENRUCANZHANGJIGOU;4RENRUJINGSHENBINGYUAN。SHIYINGLIANGHAOZHEYUEZHAN20%,YUKENNADEBINGLIXIANGJIN,SHIYINGBULIANGZHERENGZHANDUOSHU。

                  应用行为分析ABA十三张棋牌)的鼻祖洛瓦斯(Ivar Lovaass )1970年报道,他对19名3岁6个月大的孤独症患儿进行每周40小时的个别指导,结果发现其中10名入小学普通班,在课堂上的学习无需任何协助,智力测验结果属正常,社会性及情绪性反应亦佳,第二学年度还能够正常升级。遗憾的是,40年过去,我们再也没有看到那19名儿童成长后的就业及生活情况的后续报道。人们也因此不免质疑其长期疗效。

                十三张棋牌   SHANGSHIJIDEDUOSHUYANJIUXIANSHI,WEILAIFAZHANDEJUEDINGYINSHUSHIYUYANNENGLIJIZHINENGDEFAZHANSHUIPING。YIBANRENWEI5SUIQIANHUODEYOUYONGYUYANNENGLIZHE(RUNENGGOUBIAODA“MAMA,GUOZHI”“JIKAISHUI”“MAIBINGGUN”DENGYAOQIU)KEYIYUJILIANGHAODEWEILAIFAZHAN;YOUERZAOQICEDEDEZHISHANGGAODIYUWEILAIDESHIYINGNENGLICHENGZHENGBI。GUDUZHENGZHILIAOYIBANRENWEISHINIANLINGYUEXIAO、XIAOGUOYUEHAO,DANSHIDAOMUQIANWEIZHIBINGMEIYOUYIGENIANLINGDEJIEZHIDIAN,SHISHISHANGYECUNZAIZHEBUFENHUANZHEZAIJIAODANIANLINGHUODEGAISHANDEQINGKUANG。MEIGUOYOUYIGEGUDUZHENGHUANZHE50SUICAISHUOCHUDIYIJUHUA,JINGRANSHI“Get away,I don’t like that!(YIBIANQU,WOBUYAONEIGE。)”

                  (ER)

                  今年4月2日邹小兵大夫在北京十三张棋牌“2010中国孤独症人士社会服务保障研讨会上”谈到这一问题时说:“根据我们自己工作体会,这是完全可能的。首先,在我们的实际病例中近年来有越来越多的患儿经过我们的评估已经与正常儿童没有差别(不是个别的神奇个案);其次,ASD中本身就存在着一些轻型病例,这些轻型病例经过干预得到恢复无论在理论上还是实践中都是可以预期的,尤其是早期发现的病例。我们现在知道,早期发现、早期干预、高功能状态、行为干预是实现ASD痊愈的有利因素。”

                十三张棋牌   ZHEISHIWOHUIYIQILEMEILIANSHE2009NIAN5YUE8RIZHIJIAGEDEYIPIANBAODAO,WENZHONGTANDAOLEYIGEJIAOZUOLIAO·LAITEER(Leo Lytel)DEDIANXINGANLI,WOBATAFANYICHULAI,ZUOWEIFULU,GENJIAZHANGMENFENXIANG,DANQINGDAJIATEBIEZHUYIYIXIAGEDIAN:

                  1)KANGNIEDIKEZHOULIDAXUEXINLIXUEJIAOSHOUFEIEN(Deborah Fein)SHUO,QUANYU“DUIYUJUEDADUOSHUDEHAIZIERYAN,SHIBUQIESHIJIDEQIWANG,DANSHIJIAZHANGMENYINGDANGZHIDAO,ZHEIZHONGQINGKUANGYOUKENENGFASHENG。”

                  2)“GUDUZHENGZHISHENG”SHOUXIKEXUEJIADAOSENBOSHISHUO:“WORENWEIWOMENBUKENENGYULIAODAOZHEIZHONGQINGKUANGHUIFASHENGZAISHEIDESHENSHANG,”“JIULEJIE(ZHEIZHONGXIANXIANG)ERYAN,WOMENHAICHUZAIFEICHANGZAOQIDEJIEDUAN。”

                  3)DADUOSHUANLIZAIQUEZHENHOUBUJIUJIUJINXINGLEZHANGQIDEXINGWEIZHILIAO,ZAIMOUXIEANLIZHONG,SHIJIANZHANGDAMEIZHOU30-40XIAOSHI。

                  4)DADUOSHUANLITISHI,YIJINGDEDAOQUANYUDE(HAIZIDE)XIANZHUGAISHANQICHUXIANZAI7SUIZUOYOU。

                  5)DAOMUQIANWEIZHI,“QUANYULEDE”HAIZIMENZAISHENJINGXINLICESHI,YIJIKOUYUHEFEIKOUYUCESHIFANGMIANBIAOXIANSHI“FEICHANGZHENGCHANGDE”。ZHEISHUOMING“QUANYU”DEYIJU,CHULEDSM-Ⅳ,JIUSHIYIXIELIANGBIAOSHUZHI。

                十三张棋牌   6)TADEMUQINJayne LytelSHUO:“ Leo sometimes still gets upset easily but is much more flexible than before.”ZHEISHUOMINGTAYOUSHIRENGRONGYICHUXIANXINQINGFANZAODEQINGXUWENTI,DANSHIKEBANDEQINGKUANGYIJINGYOULEHENDADEGAISHAN。ZHENDUIZHEIZHONGZHUANGKUANG,ZOUDAFUSHUOGUO:“SHEIYOUMEIYOUYIXIEMAOBINGNI?”

                  7)ZHENDUI“YOU3%-25%DEGUDUZHENGHUANERNENGGOUQUANYU”DEYANJIUBAODAO,FEIENJIAOSHOUSHUO,TADEYANJIUBIAOMINGFANWEIZAI10%-20%ZHIJIAN。ZHEIGESHUZIGENBENWENYIKAISHITIDAODEKENNADENGRENDUIYUHOUDEZHUIZONGBAODAOJIAYIDUIBI,WOMENYINGGAIDECHUYIXIESHENMEYANGDEJIELUNNI?

                  (SAN)

                  就在邹大夫发言之前,杨大夫在同一讲坛上发表了题为《为自闭症儿童的一生做好准备》的讲话,作为从事孤独症康复十三张棋牌研究30多年,接触病患不下万例的专家,她强调指出:她的这篇讲话“所说的对象似乎是家长,但涉及到为自闭症服务的所有的人。”

                  ZAITANDAO“YAOCHONGFENDILIYONGXUEXIAODEJIAOYUZIYUAN”SHI,TATICHU:“JIAZHANGYULAOSHIYAOBAOCHIJINGCHANGDEJINMIDELIANXI。FUMUBUJINKEYICONGLAOSHINEILIXUEDAOXUDUOJIAOXUENEIRONGHEJIAOXUEJINENG,SHIZAIJIADEJIAOYUYUXUEXIAODEYIZHIQILAI,TONGSHI,XUEXIAOYESHIYIZHONGSHEHUIHUANJING,WANQUANBUSHIJIALINENGTIDAIDE。XUEXIAOYOUXUDUOTONGXUE,TAMENDEZUOYONGWANGWANGYESHIDARENBUNENGQUDAIDE。TONGSHI,HUOBANJIANDEXIANGCHUYEBUJINXIANYUXIAONEI,HAIKEYIYANSHENDAOXIAOWAI,DAOJIALI,SHIRANGHAIZIXUEHUIJIANLIHUOBANGUANXIBUNENGHUOQUEDETIAOJIAN。”

                十三张棋牌   TASUOJUDEANLISHI:“HUZI,NAN,JINNIAN13SUI,CHUZHONGYINIANJI。FUMUDAXUEYISHANGWENHUA。3SUIBEIZHENDUANWEIGUDUZHENG。SHANGJIGUANYOUERYUAN(YOUGUOPEIDU),7SUISHANGPUXIAO。JIAZHANGYUXIAOFANGLIANXIFEICHANGJINMI,BANZHURENZHAOTONGXUEYUTA“JIEDUIZI”,BUJINZAIGONGKESHANGBANGZHUTABINGQIEKEHOUDAILINGTATONGXIAOPENGYOUWAN。LAOSHIDUIZHEIYANGDETONGXUEMENJIYUJINGSHENSHANGHUOWUZHISHANGDEJIANGLI,TONGSHIYEQUDETONGXUEJIAZHANGDELIJIEHEZHICHI。YOUDEJIAZHANGRENWEIZHEIYANGSHIDEZIJIDEHAIZIYEXUEHUIGUANHUAITAREN。BANZHUREN、GEKELAOSHISHENZHIXIAOGONGYECANYUDUITADEBANGZHU,SHITANENGYUKUAIDIDUGUOXIAOXUEJIEDUAN。”

                  回想起11年前一个暑热的夜晚,我也曾经接待过孩子父亲的长途电话咨询,当时孩子3岁,业经北医六院杨晓玲教授确诊。从家长的主诉中,给我印象最深的是孩子没有功能语言,但是“精细动作好。喜欢看广告、天气预报。咬牙,用下巴磕人。”今年4月初,一个偶然的机会,我第一次见到了长大了的孩子。他今年14岁,目前在东北某城市的一所实验学校的初中学习。他是班上的地理课代表,英语考第一,最差也是第三。初中入学时,学校曾把学生拉到鞍山去军训,他离家跟同学一起过了7天的集体生活。除了在历算、记忆、时间等方面表现出的惊人的特异技能外,他对电脑特别感兴趣,power point做得非常好。如果不是他的父亲陪着来的,很难想象面前的这位阳光少年——虎子曾经被确诊为孤独症。当然,他还有一些问题,家长“不希望自己百年之后还得把他交给亲属”;“希望把他的潜能变成创造性。”家长“从未认为他是残疾人”,家长所思考的问题是“如何把自然人转化为社会人”,“要求他写自己的发展规划。”

                  (SI)

                  XIANZAIWOMENZAIFANHUIDAO2005NIAN,SHIRENBANZHURENDEYANGLAOSHICENGJINGYOUGUOXIANGXIDEJILU,MIAOSHULEHUZIZAI7SUIZUOYOUSHIRUHEBURUXIANZHUGAISHANDEKUAICHEDAODE:

                  “2003NIANDEXIAMO,YOUYIGEXINXUEQIKAISHILE,QUNYINGXIAOXUEYINGLAILEZHEIYANGYIWEITESHUDEXINSHENG。HAIZIZHANGDEFEICHANGPIAOLIANG,BAIJINGDELIANPANGSHANGQIANZHEYIDUIDADADEYANJING,TAHAIYOUYIGEHAOTINGDEMINGZI——HUZI。RANERDANGNIZHUSHITASHUANGYANDESHIHOU,KANDAODEQUESHIDAIZHIDEMUGUANG,MIMANGDESHENQING。ZHEISHIYIWEIHUANYOUYANZHONGZIBIZHENGDEHAIZI,TASIWEIYISHIHUNLUAN,WANQUANSANGSHIZIKONGNENGLI,YUYANBIAODANENGLIJICHA,ZUOSHIBUZHIDAOSHENQIAN。SHAOBULIUYIJIUHUICHUANGHUO,SHIYIGENENGRANGRENCAOSUILEXINDEHAIZI。TADEMUQINYOUYUBEIGUANJUEWANG,CENGJICISHITUHEHAIZIYITONGTASHANGBUGUIZHILU。BIEKANHUZIYIJINGQISUIDUOLE,KETADEXINLINIANLINGHAIBURUYIGELIANGSUIDEYOUTONG,TADEJIAZHANGCENGDAIZHEHAIZIQUGUOHENDUOXUEXIAOBAOMINGSHANGXUE,DOUBEILENGMODIJUZHIMENWAI。”

                十三张棋牌   “YOUYUHUZIWUSUIDUOCAIKAIKOUBENGZI,TUZIHANHUBUQING,WUFAWANZHENGBIAODAZIJIDEYISI,WANQUANKAOKUNAOLAIFAXIEZIJIDEBUMANHEYONGHANJIAOLAIBIAODAGAOXINGQINGXU。TAMEIYOUYIDIANZIKONGNENGLI,KETANGSHANGTAXIANGXIAZUOWEIJIUHUISUISHILUANCUAN,SHAOBURUYIJIUKUNAOBUZHI。LAOSHIJIANGDAOLITAGENBENTINGBUDONG,MEIYOUFANYING、BIAOQINGMURAN。KEJIANSHAOBULIUYIJIUHUIZUOCHUYIXIEWEIXIANDESHI,LINGRENFANGBUSHENGFANG,QIANCHELEWOJUDADEJINGLI,GAODEWOMEITIANPIBEIBUKAN。”“TADUIXUEXIAOSHENGHUOGUILVYAOQIUTEBIEKEBAN,BUYUNXUYOUSIHAODEGAIBIAN,FOUZEJIUHUIDAKUDANAO,LEILIUBUZHI,LINGRENFEICHANGXINTONG。LIRU:ZHOUYIDESHENGQIYISHIBIXUANSHIJUXING,YINWEITIANXIADAYUERZANTINGKEBUXING。SHANGKEBIXUANZHAOKEBIAOSHUNXUJINXING,LINSHIDIAOHUANYIJIEKEJIUHUICHUFANTANEIGENBUMANYIDESHENJING。”

                  “GENJUTAZIKONGNENGLIJICHADETEDIAN,WOCAIQUSHANGKEDUOTIXING(PINGJUNSANFENZHONGYICI),XIAKEQINJIAOYU,MEIWANDOULIANXI(YUJIAZHANG)DEFANGFALAIBANGZHUTA。”“GENJUTADETESHUQINGKUANG,WOZAIBANJITILIZUCHENGAIXINHUZHUXIAOZU。KETANGSHANGZAITASHENBIANANPAIJIMINGGEFANGMIANDOUHENYOUXIUDEXUESHENGXIANGBANZHOUWEI,JITAZUOCHUBANGYANGBINGSUISHITIXINGTA。KEJIANYOUTONGXUEGENTAYIQIQUCESUO,PEITAYITONGZUOYOUXI。ZHONGWUYOUTONGXUEJIEBANQUDAFAN,ZAITAZUOWEIXIANDEHUODONGSHIYOUTONGXUEJISHITIXINGBINGDAITALIKAI。JIZUOYESHI,YOUTONGXUEJIANCHASHIFOUYIJINGJIWANZHENG。QUANBANKAIZHANLE“AIHUZI、BANGHUZI”DEHUODONG,YIGECHONGMANLIXINGHEGUANAIDEHUANJING,YOUCIJIANLIQILAI。SHIJIANZHENGMING,ZHEIGEHUANJINGDUIHUZIDEXUNLIANZHIGUANZHONGYAO,TAJINBUDESUDUZHUBUJIAKUAI。”

                十三张棋牌   “YAOQIUMEIRENMEITIANDOUYAOGENHUZISHUOYIJUHUA,BINGJISHIBIAOYANGHETASHUOHUADUODETONGXUE。”“ZAIDAJIADEBANGZHUXIA,HUZIZHUANBIANDESUDUJIAKUAI,CONGNENGSHUOYIGEZIDAOHUISHUOYIGECI,ZAIDAOYIGEDUANJU;CONGBUHUITINGBIERENSHUOHUADAONENGHETONGXUEDUIHUALAIBIAODAZIJIDEYISI;CONGBEITONGXUELAZHEXIAOSHOUQUWANDAOZHUDONGYAOQINGTONGXUE;CONGXIANGSHANGNAJIUHUIMASHANGXIAZUOWEI,DAOYOUXIANGFAXIANJUSHOUZAIFAYAN”“SUIZHE05NIANXINNIANZHONGSHENGDEKOUXIANG,HUZILIXINGDEDAMENYOUXUDIKAIQIZHE。YOUYITIANSHANGXIAOHUIKE,TONGXUEMENDOUJUJINGHUISHENDIZAISHOUTINGGUANGBO,DUIBIAOYANGHEPIPINGCONGLAIDOUMEIYOUFANYINGDEHUZITURANDUIWOSHUO:“LAOSHIWOYAOXIAOHONGHUA”。TINGHOUWOXIANSHIYILENG,JIERLIUCHUGAOXINGDELEISHUI。WOWANFENXINKUDEZHENQINGFUCHU,DENGDAIDEBUJIUSHIZHEIYIKEMA?”(YINZIYANGGUANG:《WEIHAIZIZHENGTUOZIBIJIASUOERNULI》)

                  (WU)

                  GUQIEBULUNHUZIDECHENGZHANGGUOCHENGSHIBUSHI“GEBIEDESHENQIGEAN”,BULUNZAIHUZIJINHOUDECHENGZHANGDAOLUSHANGHAIHUIYUDAOSHENMEKUNNAN,YIXIEWENTISHIZHIDEWOMENSIKAODE:

                十三张棋牌   1)YANGXIAOLINGJIAOSHOUZHICHU:“TAMENDEXUEXITISHENGSHIZHANGQIDEHUOXUSHIYISHENG,”ER“FUMUSHIJIAOYUKANGFUDEZHUYAOJIAOSEHEYISHENGDEJUECEREN”。FUMUDEZUOYONGDUIBANGZHUGUDUZHENGHUANERSHIZUIGUANJIANDEYINSUHELILIANG,HUZIDEFUMUZAIJINGGUOCUOE、BEITONG、SHIWANGZHIHOU,NENGLENGJINGJIESHOUXIANSHI,YIJIANDINGWENDINGDEXINTAILAIBUDUANBANGZHUHAIZIZOUCHUGUDU,XIANGSHOUMEIHAOERYUKUAIDERENSHENG。WOMENYINGGAIXUEXIHUZIFUMUYONGBUFANGQI,GENMINGYUNKANGZHENGDEJINGSHEN。GUOQUYIBANRENWEI,HAIZIDEYUHOUQUJUEYUWUSUISHIYUYANFAZHANCHENGDU,ERHUZIQIAQIASHI“WUSUIDUOCAIKAIKOUBENGZI,”QIE“TUZIHANHUBUQING,WUFAWANZHENGBIAODAZIJIDEYISI,WANQUANKAOKUNAOLAIFAXIEZIJIDEBUMANHEYONGHANJIAOLAIBIAODAGAOXINGQINGXU。”

                  2)HUZIDEJINBUYEXUSHOUXIANQUJUEYUZISHENDEQIANNENG,GENZAOQIQUEZHEN、ZAOQIJINXINGGEZHONGGANYUYEMIBUKEFEN,TONGSHIYEZUOZHENGLEGUOWAIANLIDETISHI:TADE“XIANZHUGAISHANQICHUXIANZAI7SUIZUOYOU”,JIZHUZHEIYIDIAN,YEXUTONGGUANZHUZAOQIGANYUTONGYANGZHONGYAO。

                  3)XUEXIAO、SHEHUIDELIJIEHEJIENACHENGDUTONGYANGSHIGUDUZHENGHUANERYUHOUBUKEHUOQUEDEGUANJIANYINSU。SHIJUZHIMENWAI,SHUYUAN、HUSHISHENZHIBISHITAMEN,HAISHIZHENXINJIENATAMEN,DUOYIFENGUANHUAI,DUOYIFENLIJIE,DUOYIFENAI,JIERANDETAIDUJUEDINGJIERANDEJIEGUO。HUZIDEJINBUYAOGANXIEBANZHURENYIJIZHICHITADEXUEXIAOLINGDAO,GENGYAOGANXIEHUZIDETONGXUEHETAMENDEJIAZHANGDELIJIEHEJIENA。“HUZIDEMUQINWEICIGANDONGDEZAIJIAZHANGHUISHANGXIANGSUOYOUDEJIAZHANGSHENSHENDIJULEYIGONG,TAGANXIEQUANBANXIAOPENGYOUJIYUHUZIDEGUANAIZHIXIN。”

                  4)虎子曾就读的学校周校长说,“最初收录的那个患儿是片内生,本着招生原则我们必须接受。”现在,她担心,“一位校长退休后,后续校长能否继续深入研究也有待于解决。”作为“到目前已有18名孤独症儿童入学的”学校领导,她说:“教师疼爱自己的孩子是本能,而关爱别人的孩子是神圣。”“教育我们的老师要有大教育观,……做好事不计较得失。这种说教肯定不是万能的,带这样的儿童教师要付出的更多,相应的酬劳(应该跟上)”(周菊云:《有爱的教育才是成功的教育》)

                十三张棋牌   5)“TADEJIAZHANGCENGDAIZHEHAIZIQUGUOHENDUOXUEXIAOBAOMINGSHANGXUE,DOUBEILENGMODIJUZHIMENWAI。”ZHEIZHONGQINGKUANGRENGRANPUBIANCUNZAI,WOMENYOULIYOUHUYU:QUANGUOGEDIZHUGUANJIAOYUBUMENDELINGDAOTONGZHI,GEJIPUTONGXUEXIAODEXIAOZHANG、LAOSHI、ZHIGONGDOUNENGGOURENZHENSIKAO,CONGHUZICHENGZHANGDEJINGLIZHONGDECHUZIJIYINGGAIZUOXIESHENMEDEJIELUN。WOMENCHANGSHUODEYIJUHUA:“ZHIYAOYOUBAIFENZHIYIDEXIWANG,JIUYAOJINBAIFENZHIBAIDENULI。”ZAISHANGBAOYIWUJIAOYURUXUELVYIJINGDABIAODETONGSHI,SHIFOUHAIYOU“BIXUJIESHOU”DEDUIXIANGRENGRANBEIJUZHIMENWAI?WOGERENRENWEI,CUJINGONGZHONGLEJIE,TONGYANGYAOCUJINZHUGUANWENJIAOGONGZUODEGEJILINGDAOTONGZHIDUIGUDUZHENGDELEJIE,TAJUEBUJINJINSHIYIXUE、MINZHENG、SHEBAO、TEJIAOHUOZHECANLIANDESHIQING。

                十三张棋牌   6)SHEHUIHUANJINGDEGAISHAN,QUJUEYUJINGJIDEFAZHANHESHEHUIDEJINBU。JIATINGDESHEHUIJINGJIZHUANGKUANG,FUMUXINTAI,HUANJINGHUOSHEHUIDEZHICHIHEZIYUANDENGJUNDUIHAIZIDEYUHOUCHANSHENGYINGXIANG。HUZIDEFUQINBAXIANYOUDESHEHUIZIYUANLIYONGDAOLEJIZHI,WOMENQIDAITAZAORIWANCHENG《WOHEERZIYIQICHENGZHANG》DEXIEZUO,RANGWOMENYOUJIHUIFENXIANGHUZICHENGZHANGDEJINGLI。WOMENQIWANG,WOMENDEHAIZITONGYANGNENGGOUGONGXIANGGAIGEKAIFANGDECHENGGUO,ZHENGQUYIGEJINKENENGHAODEYUHOU,RANGJINKENENGDUODEHAIZIGUOYIZHONGYOUZHIYE、YOUGONGZI、YOUPENGYOU,TONGSHINENGGOUYONGZIJIDELAODONGHUIKUISHEHUIDEYOUZUNYANDESHENGHUO。

                  (LIU)

                  FULU:MEILIANSHE2009NIAN5YUE8RIZHIJIAGEBAODAO:

                  LIAO·LAITEER(Leo Lytel)ZAIYOUERSHIBEIZHENDUANHUANYOUGUDUZHENG,DANTAZAI9SUIQIANYIJINGZHANSHENGLEZHEIYIZHANGAI。

                十三张棋牌   YUELAIYUEDUODEYANJIUTISHI:ZHISHAOYOU10%DEGUDUZHENGHUANERNENGGOU“QUANYU”,ZHEIXIEHAIZIZHONGJIANDADUOSHUJINGLIGUODUONIANDEQIANGHUAXINGWEIZHILIAO(intensive behavioral therapy),LIAODEJINBUZHISHIQIZHONGDEYILI。

                十三张棋牌   HUAIYIZHEDUIZHEIZHONGXIANXIANGBIAOSHIHUAIYI,DANSHIKANGNIEDIKEZHOULIDAXUEXINLIXUEJIAOSHOUDAIBOLA·FEIEN(Deborah Fein)QUESHIYIWEIDUICISHENXINBUYIZHE。

                十三张棋牌   BENZHOUTAZAIZHIJIAGEJUXINGDEGUDUZHENGHUIYISHANGJIESHAOLETADEYANJIU,YANJIUDUIXIANGWEI20MINGERTONG,GENJUYANGEDEFENXI,TAMENDOUCENGDEDAOGUOZHENGQUEDEZHENDUAN,DANZAIDUONIANZHIHOU,TAMENBUZAIBEIRENWEIHUANYOUGUDUZHENG。

                  在这20个儿童中,有一个来自华盛顿特区的里奥·莱特尔,他曾经对人没有视线接触,只会鹦鹉学舌式地重复别人对他说的词语,并且经常旋转自身,这些都是典型的孤独症症状。现在他是一个能够清楚表达、善于交往的三年级学生。他的母亲杰茵·莱特尔说,里奥的老师称他是班上的领袖人物。

                十三张棋牌   ZHEIXIANGYANJIUDEDAOMEIGUOJINGSHENWEISHENGYANJIUSUO(the National Institute of Mental Health)DEZIZHU,SUOSHEJIDEERTONGNIANLINGZAI9-18SUIZHIJIAN。

                  GUDUZHENGYANJIURENYUAN、GUDUZHENGCHANGDAOTUANTI“GUDUZHENGZHISHENG(Autism Speaks)”DESHOUXIKEXUEJIAJIELAERDING·DAOSEN(Geraldine Dawson)CHENGFEIENJIAOSHOUDEYANJIUSHIYIDATUPO。

                十三张棋牌   DAOSENSHUO:“SUIRANWOMENZHONGJIANYOUXUDUORENZAILINCHUANGLINGYUZHIWAIYIJINGKANDAOGUOYIXIESIHUQUANYUDEHAIZI”,DANSHICONGLAIMEIYOURENXIANGFEIENJIAOSHOUDEYANJIUNEIYANGXIANGXIJIAYIJIZAI。TAYOUSHUO:“JIULEJIE(ZHEIZHONGXIANXIANG)ERYAN,WOMENHAICHUZAIFEICHANGZAOQIDEJIEDUAN。”

                十三张棋牌   YIWANGDEYIXIEYANJIUTISHI,YOU3%-25%DEGUDUZHENGHUANERNENGGOUQUANYU。FEIENJIAOSHOUSHUO,TADEYANJIUBIAOMINGFANWEIZAI10%-20%ZHIJIAN。

                  但是,即使经过许多治疗——往往是经过精心设计的教育和社会交往十三张棋牌活动,伴随各种奖励——大部分孤独症儿童的特征依然。

                  FEIENJIAOSHOUSHUO,QUANYU“DUIYUJUEDADUOSHUDEHAIZIERYAN,SHIBUQIESHIJIDEQIWANG“,DANSHIJIAZHANGMENYINGDANGZHIDAO,ZHEIZHONGQINGKUANGKENENGFASHENG。

                  她说,持怀疑态度的人们认为“有些孩子一开始并非真的是孤独症,……有些孩子在社会交往方面仍然怪异,有强迫性行为,只是并不确切符合(孤独症诊断十三张棋牌)标准而已。”

                  FEIENJIAOSHOUSHUO:TASUOYANJIUDEHAIZIMEN“ZHENDECENGJINGHUANYOUGUDUZHENG,”ERXIANZAI“ZHENDEBUSHILE。”

                  密西根大学的孤独症专家凯瑟琳·洛德(Catherine Lord)说,她也曾见到过痊愈了的孤独症患者,大多数孩子的父母花费了大量的时间跟他们一起进行行为矫正治疗。但是,洛德补充说:“我认为我们不可能预料到这种情况会发生在谁的身上,”而且她认为要想控制这种情况发生是不可能的。”

                十三张棋牌   FEIENJIAOSHOUDEYANJIUSHANGZAIJIXUJINXINGZHIZHONG,TASUOYANJIUDEHAIZIMENDOUSHIZAI5SUIZHIQIANJINGGUOGUDUZHENGZHUANJIAZHENDUANDE,DANSHIXIANZAIBUZAIFUHEGUDUZHENGDEZHENDUANBIAOZHUN。CHUSHIDEZHENDUANSHITONGGUOZAONIANDEYILIAODANGANDEDAOZHENGSHIDE。

                  YINWEIZHEIZHONGXIANXIANGFEICHANGHANJIAN,FEIENJIAOSHOURENGZAIXUNZHAOGENGDUODEHAIZIYIHUODEZHENGJUZHICHI,ZHAOCHUYUANXIANHUANYOUGUDUZHENGDEHAIZIMENKENENGJUYOUNAXIEGONGTONGDETEDIAN。TADETUANDUIHAIZAIDUIZHEIXIEHAIZIGENGUDUZHENGHUANERHEFEIGUDUZHENGERTONGJINXINGDUIZHAOYANJIU。

                十三张棋牌   TASHUO,DAOMUQIANWEIZHI,“QUANYULEDE”HAIZIMENZAISHENJINGXINLICESHI,YIJIKOUYUHEFEIKOUYUCESHIFANGMIANBIAOXIANSHI“FEICHANGZHENGCHANGDE”。

                  YANJIURENYUANHAIZAIJINXINGYINGXIANGSAOMIAOJIANCHA,CHAKANQUANYULEDEHAIZIMENDEDANAOBIJIAOXIANGGUDUZHENGHUANERDEDANAO,HAISHIBIJIAOXIANGFEIGUDUZHENGERTONGDEDANAO。GUDUZHENGHUANERDEDANAOWANGWANGYAOBIZHENGCHANGERTONGDEDANAOSHAOWEIDAYIXIE。

                十三张棋牌   HAIZAIDUICENGJINGDEGUDUZHENGHUANERJINXINGYINGXIANGSAOMIAOYIJIANCHAQIDANAOGONGNENGDEYANJIURENYUANXIANGYAOZHIDAO,ZHEIXIEHAIZIDE“ZHENGCHANG”XINGWEISHIFOUSHIYINWEITAMENDEDANAOHUODONG“ZHENGCHANG”LE,HAISHIYINWEITAMENDEDANAOYIYIZHONGFEIDIANXINGDEFANGSHICHULIXINXI,YIBUCHANGYIXIEQUESUN。ZHEIXIEJIANCEDEJIEGUORENGZAIFENXIZHIZHONG。

                十三张棋牌   ZHEIXIECENGJINGDEGUDUZHENGHUANER,DADUOSHUZAIQUEZHENHOUBUJIUJIUJINXINGLEZHANGQIDEXINGWEIZHILIAO,ZAIMOUXIEANLIZHONG,SHIJIANZHANGDAMEIZHOU30-40XIAOSHI。

                  XUDUOHAIZIDEZHISHANGCHAOGUOPINGJUNSHUIPING,BINGCENGBEIZHENDUANWEIJIAOQINGDEGUDUZHENGANLI。XUDUOHAIZILIANGSUISHIZAIYUNDONGFAZHANFANGMIANCHUYUZHENGCHANGFANWEI,NENGGOUZOULU,PANPAHEWOBI。

                  FEIENJIAOSHOUSHUO,ZAIDADUOSHUANLIZHONGTISHI,YIJINGDEDAOQUANYUDE(HAIZIDE)XIANZHUGAISHANQICHUXIANZAI7SUIZUOYOU。

                  ZHEIXIEHAIZIMEIYOUYIGEXIANSHICHURENHEGUDUZHENGFUFADEJIXIANG。DANSHIJIANGJINSIFENZHISANDEQIANGUDUZHENGHUANERYOUGUOQITAZHANGAI,BAOKUOZHUYILIQUESUNWENTI,CHOUDONGZHENGHEKONGJUZHENG;QIZHONGYOU8GEHAIZIRENGRANSHOUDAOZHEIXIEZHANGAIDEYINGXIANG。

                十三张棋牌   LIAODEMUQINJIEYIN·LAITEERSHUO,LIAOYOUSHIRENGRANRONGYIBIANDEXINFANYILUAN,DANSHIYIJINGBIGUOQULINGHUODUOLE。

                  (2010NIANLIUYIERTONGJIE)

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